2Developmental Psychology What shapes the way we change over time?Focus on psychological changes across the entire life spanEvery area of psychology can be looked at from this perspectivebiological developmentsocial developmentcognitive/perceptual developmentpersonality development
4Fundamental Issues: Nature vs. Nurture What is role of heredity vs. environment in determining psychological makeup?Is IQ inherited or determined by early environment?Is there a ‘criminal’ gene?Is sexual orientation a choice or genetically determined?These are some of our greatest societal debatesMistake to pose as ‘either/or’ questions
5Fundamental Issues: Is Development Continuous? Development means change; change can be abrupt or gradual.Two views of human developmentstage theories: there are distinct phases to intellectual and personality developmentcontinuity: development is continuous
6Fundamental Issues in Developmental Psychology Critical period — Are there periods when an individual is particularly sensitive to certain environmental experiences?Are the first hours after birth critical for parent-child bonding?Is first year critical for developing trust?Easier to learn a language before age 10?
7Overview of Genetics Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Chromosomes are long twisted strands of DNA.DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and carries instructions.Genes are the basic unit of heredity; single unit of DNA on the chromosome
10Dominant and Recessive Genotype—underlying genetic makeupPhenotype—traits that are expressedDominant genes—will always be expressed if presentRecessive genes—will not be expressed unless they are in a pair
12Sex Linked Traits Traits linked to the X or Y (sex) chromosomes Usually recessive and carried on the X chromosomeAppear more frequently in one sex than anotherColor blindness, baldness, hemophilia, Fragile X
14Physical and Psychological Development Related Physical development begins at conceptionPhysical maturity sets limits on psychological abilityvisual system not fully functional at birthlanguage system not functional until much laterPrenatal environment can have lifetime influence on health and intellectual ability
15Prenatal Development Conception—when a sperm penetrates the ovum Zygote—a fertilized eggGerminal period—first two weeks after conceptionEmbryonic period—weeks three through eight after conceptionFetal period—two months after conception until birth
16Prenatal Influences on Development NutritionAnxietyMother’s general healthMaternal ageTeratogens—any agent that causes a birth defect (e.g., drugs, radiation, viruses)
17Infant Abilities Infants are born with immature visual system can detect movement and large objectsOther senses function well on day 1will orient to soundsturn away from unpleasant odorsprefer sweet to sour tastesBorn with a number of reflex behaviors
18Infant ReflexesRooting—turning the head and opening the mouth in the direction of a touch on the cheekSucking—sucking rhythmically in response to oral stimulationBabinski—fanning and curling toes when foot is stroked
19Infant ReflexesMoro—throwing the arms out, arching the back and bringing the arms together as if to hold onto something (in response to loud noise or sudden change in position of the head)Grasping—curling the fingers around an object
20Infant AttachmentIntense emotional bond between infant and caregiver
21Temperament Easy—adaptable, positive mood, regular habits Slow to warm up—low activity, somewhat slow to adapt, generally withdraw from new situationsDifficult—intense emotions, irritable, cry frequentlyAverage—unable to classify (1/3 of all children)
22Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Mother-child dyads were observed in a playroom under four conditions:initial mother-child interactionmother leaves infant alone in playroomfriendly stranger enters playroommother returns and greets child
23Forms of AttachmentSecurely attached—explores the room when mother is present, becomes upset and explores less when mother is not present, shows pleasure when mother returnsAvoidantly attached—a form of insecure attachment in which child avoids mother and acts coldly to her
24Forms of AttachmentAnxious resistant attachment—a form of insecure attachment where the child remains close to mother and remains distressed despite her attempts to comfort
25Language Development Preview Universal Characteristics of Human LanguageCourse of DevelopmentSupports for Language DevelopmentLanguage Learning among Nonhuman Apes
26Universal Characteristics of Human Language Language development similar across cultures; what are the common elements?Morphemes—smallest meaningful units of languagecontent morphemes (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)grammatical morphemes (e.g., articles, conjunctions, some prefixes and suffixes)
27Universal Characteristics of Human Language Phonemes—elementary vowel and consonant soundsGrammar—rules of languagephonology—how phonemes can be combined to make morphemesmorphology—how morphemes can be combined to make wordssyntax—how words can be combined to make phrases and sentences
28Language DevelopmentInfant preference for human speech over other soundsbefore 6 months can hear differences used in all languagesafter 6 months begin to hear only differences used in native languageCooing—vowel sounds produced 2–4 monthsBabbling—consonant/vowel sounds between 4 to 6 monthsEven deaf infants coo and babble
29Language Development MONTH Speech Characteristic 2 Cooing vowel sounds 4 Babbling consonant/vowel10 Babbling native language sounds12 One-word stage24 Two-word stage24+ SentencesTable adapted from Myers (5e)
31Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Swiss psychologist who became leading theorist in 1930’sPiaget believed that “children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world”These “understandings” are in the form of structures he called schemas
32Development of Schemas Schemas are frameworks that develop to help organize knowledgeAssimilation—process of taking new information or a new experience and fitting it into an already existing schemaAccommodation—process by which existing schemas are changed or new schemas are created in order to fit new information
33Piaget’s ApproachPrimary method was to ask children to solve problems and to question them about the reasoning behind their solutionsDiscovered that children think in radically different ways than adultsProposed that development occurs as a series of ‘stages’ differing in how the world is understood
34Sensorimotor Stage (birth – 2) Information is gained through the senses and motor actionsIn this stage child perceives and manipulates but does not reasonSymbols become internalized through language developmentObject permanence is acquired
35Object PermanenceThe understanding that objects exist independent of one’s actions or perceptions of themBefore 6 months infants act as if objects removed from sight cease to existCan be surprised by disappearance/reappearance of a face (peek-a-boo)
36Preoperational Stage (2–7 years) Emergence of symbolic thoughtCentrationEgocentrismLack the concept of conservationAnimismArtificialismThese are speaker notes
38ConservationNumberKeywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)In conservation of number tests, two equivalent rows of coins are placed side by side and the child says that there is the same number in each row. Then one row is spread apart and the child is again asked if there is the same number in each.
39ConservationLengthIn conservation of length tests, two same-length sticks are placed side by side and the child says that they are the same length. Then one is moved and the child is again askedif they are the same length.Keywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)
40Conservation Substance In conservation of substance tests, two identical amounts of clay are rolled into similar-appearing balls and the child says that they both have the same amount of clay. Then one ball is rolled out and the child is again asked if they have the same amount.Keywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)
41Concrete Operational Stage (7–12 years) Understanding of mental operations leading to increasingly logical thoughtClassification and categorizationLess egocentricInability to reason abstractly or hypothetically
42Formal Operational Stage (age 12 – adulthood) Hypothetico-deductive reasoningAdolescent egocentrism illustrated by the phenomenon of personal fable and imaginary audience
43Piaget’s Theory Challenged New studies indicate infants do more than sense and react.One study had 1-month-old babies suck one of two pacifiers without ever seeing them.When shown both pacifiers, infants stared more at the one they had felt in their mouth.This requires a sort of reasoning.Study was done by Meltzoff and Borton, Figure is from Myers 5e
44Critique of Piaget’s Theory Underestimates children’s abilitiesOverestimates age differences in thinkingVagueness about the process of changeUnderestimates the role of the social environmentLack of evidence for qualitatively different stages
45Information-Processing Perspective Focuses on the mind as a system, analogous to a computer for analyzing information from the environmentDevelopmental improvements reflectincreased capacity of working memoryfaster speed of processingnew algorithms (methods)more stored knowledge
46Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Emphasized the child’s interaction with the social world (other people) as a cause of developmentVygotsky believed language to be the foundation for social interaction and thought.Piaget believed language was a byproduct of thought.
47Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Vygotsky—children learn from interactions with other peopleZone of proximal development—what a child can do by interacting with another person, but can’t do alone.Critical thinking based on dialogue with others who challenge ideasPiaget—focused on children’s interaction with the physical world
48What Are the Issues ? Individuals develop socially How do social relationships develop?What factors drive social development?biologicalculturalcognitive
49Erikson’s TheoryBiological in belief that there are innate drives to develop social relationships and that these promote survival (Darwinism)Divided life span into eight psychosocial stages, each associated with a different drive and a problem or crisis to resolveOutcome of each stage varies along a continuum from positive to negative
50Stage 1 (Birth–1) Trust vs. Mistrust Infants must rely on others for careConsistent and dependable caregiving and meeting infant needs leads to a sense of trustInfants who are not well cared for will develop mistrust
51Stage 2 (1–3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Children are discovering their own independence.Those given the opportunity to experience independence will gain a sense of autonomy.Children that are overly restrained or punished harshly will develop shame and doubt.
52Stage 3 (3–5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Children are exposed to the wider social world and given greater responsibility.Sense of accomplishment leads to initiative whereas feelings of guilt can emerge if the child is made to feel too anxious or irresponsible.
53Stage 4 (5–12 years) Industry vs. Inferiority Stage of life surrounding mastery of knowledge and intellectual skillsSense of competence and achievement leads to industryFeeling incompetent and unproductive leads to inferiority
54Stage 5 (Adolescence) Identity vs. Confusion Developing a sense of who one is and where one is going in lifeSuccessful resolution leads to positive identityUnsuccessful resolution leads to identity confusion or a negative identity
55Stage 6 (Young adulthood) Intimacy vs. Isolation Time for sharing oneself with another personCapacity to hold commitments with others leads to intimacyFailure to establish commitments leads to feelings of isolation
56Stage 7 (Middle adulthood) Generativity vs. Stagnation Caring for others in family, friends, and work leads to sense of contribution to later generationsStagnation comes from a sense of boredom and meaninglessness
57Stage 8 (Late adulthood to Death) Integrity vs. Despair Successful resolutions of all previous crises leads to integrity and the ability to see broad truths and advise those in earlier stagesDespair arises from feelings of helplessness and the bitter sense that life has been incomplete
58Some DefinitionsSex—the biological category of male or female; sexual intercourseGender—cultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity or femininityGender roles—behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits designated either masculine or feminine in a given cultureGender identity—a person’s psychological sense of being male or femaleSexual orientation—direction of a person's emotional and erotic attractions
59Gender Role Stereotypes The beliefs and expectations people hold about the typical characteristics, preferences, and behaviors of men and womenIn the US, men and women view the female stereotype more positively than the male stereotype. This is called benevolent sexismThere is a high degree of agreement on the characteristics associated with each sex among people of many different cultures.
60Gender Related Differences Differences do not mean deficienciesThree main areas of gender differencesPersonalityCognitive abilitiesSexual attitudes and behaviors
62Personality Differences No significant differences between men and women on most characteristicsWomen tend to be more nurturant than menMen tend to be more assertive than women
63Cognitive Differences No differences for most cognitive abilitiesVerbal, reading, and writing—females consistently score higherSpatial skills—males outscore females on mentally rotating objects, females score better on remembering locations of objectsMath Skills—males score slightly better than females
64Gender Role Development Between ages 2-3 years, children can identify themselves and other children as boys or girls. The concept of gender or sex, however, is based more on outward characteristics such as clothing.Toddler girls tend to play more with dolls and ask for help more than boys.Toddler boys tend to play more with trucks and wagons and tend to play more actively.After age 3 years, we see consistent gender differences in preferred toys and activities.
65Sexual DevelopmentPuberty—stage where an individual reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of sexual reproductionPrimary sex characteristics—sex organs directly involved in reproductionSecondary sex characteristics—develop during puberty, not directly involved in reproduction, but distinguish male from femaleAdolescent growth spurt—period of accelerated growth during pubertyMenarche—female’s first menstrual period
66Social Learning Theory Gender roles are acquired through the basic processes of learning, including reinforcement, punishment, and modeling.
67Gender Schema TheoryGender-role development is influenced by the formation of schemas, or mental representations, of masculinity and femininity.An example of how a child forms a schema associated with gender. A girl is offered a choice of 4 toys to play with.I am a girlToy carDollOrangeArtichokeApproach objectWho for?Is it relevant to me?Avoid/ForgetAssign to category and remember/ApproachNot for meFor meBoysGirls
68Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind people’s answersProposed six stages, each taking into account a broader portion of the social world
69Levels of Moral Reasoning Preconventional—moral reasoning is based on external rewards and punishmentsConventional—laws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws and rulesPostconventional—reasoning based on personal moral standards
70Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation A focus on direct consequencesNegative actions will result in punishmentsPositive actions will result in rewards
71Stage 2: Mutual BenefitReflects the understanding that different people have different self-interests, which sometimes come in conflictGetting what one wants often requires giving something up in return
72Stage 3: Interpersonal Expectations An attempt to live up to the expectations of important othersPositive actions will improve relations with significant othersNegative actions will harm those relationships
73Stage 4: Law-and-Order Morality To maintain social order, people must resist personal pressures and follow the laws of the larger society.
74Stage 5: Legal Principles A balance is struck between respect for laws and ethical principles that transcend specific laws.Laws that fail to promote general welfare or that violate ethical principles can be changed, reinterpreted, or abandoned.
75Stage 6: Universal Moral Principles Self-chosen ethical principlesProfound respect for sanctity of human lifeMoral principles take precedence over laws that might conflict with them, such as conscientious objectors.
76Adult DevelopmentGenetics and lifestyle combine to determine course of physical changes.Social development involves marriage and transition to parenthood.Paths of adult social development are varied and include diversity of lifestyles.
77Late AdulthoodOld age as a time of poor health, inactivity, and decline is a myth.Activity theory of aging—life satisfaction is highest when people maintain level of activity they had in earlier years
78Death and DyingIn general, anxiety about dying tends to decrease in late adulthood.Kubler-Ross stages of dyingDenialAngerBargainDepressionAcceptanceNot universally demonstrated