Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Social Development The changing nature of relationships with others over the life span.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 Social Development The changing nature of relationships with others over the life span."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Social Development The changing nature of relationships with others over the life span

2 2 What Are the Issues ? zIndividuals develop socially. How do social relationships develop? zWhat factors drive social development? ybiological ycultural ycognitive

3 3 Erikson’s Theory zBiological in belief that there are innate drives to develop social relationships and that these promote survival (Darwinism) zDivided life span into eight psychosocial stages, each associated with a different drive and a problem or crisis to resolve zOutcome of each stage varies along a continuum from positive to negative

4 4 Stage 1 (birth - 1) Trust vs. Mistrust zInfants must rely on others for care zConsistent and dependable caregiving and meeting infant needs leads to a sense of trust zInfants who are not well cared for will develop mistrust

5 5 Stage 2 (1-3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt zChildren are discovering their own independence zThose given the opportunity to experience independence will gain a sense of autonomy zChildren that are overly restrained or punished harshly will develop shame and doubt

6 6 Stage 3 (3-5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt zChildren are exposed to the wider social world and given greater responsibility zSense of accomplishment leads to initiative, whereas feelings of guilt can emerge if the child is made to feel too anxious or irresponsible

7 7 Stage 4 (5-12 years) Industry vs. Inferiority zStage of life surrounding mastery of knowledge and intellectual skills zSense of competence and achievement leads to industry zFeeling incompetent and unproductive leads to inferiority

8 8 Stage 5 (adolescence) Identity vs. Confusion zDeveloping a sense of who one is and where s/he is going in life zSuccessful resolution leads to positive identity zUnsuccessful resolution leads to identity confusion or a negative identity

9 9 Stage 6 (young adulthood) Intimacy vs. Isolation zTime for sharing oneself with another person zCapacity to hold commitments with others leads to intimacy zFailure to establish commitments leads to feelings of isolation

10 10 Stage 7 (middle adulthood) Generativity vs. Stagnation zCaring for others in family, friends and work leads to sense of contribution to later generations zStagnation comes from a sense of boredom and meaninglessness

11 11 Stage 8 (late adulthood to death) Integrity vs. Despair zSuccessful resolutions of all previous crises leads to integrity and the ability to see broad truths and advise those in earlier stages zDespair arises from feelings of helplessness and the bitter sense that life has been incomplete

12 12 Bronfenbrenner’s Social Ecology Theory zNetwork of interactions and interdependencies among people, institutions and cultural context

13 13 Infant Attachment zIntense emotional bond between infant and caregiver

14 14 Harlow’s Study of Attachment zInfant rhesus monkeys were placed with two surrogate mothers, one made of wire and one covered with soft cloth zMilk-producing nipple was attached to either the wire or the cloth mother zAttachment was based on “contact comfort” rather than feeding

15 15 Ainsworth’s Strange Situation zMother-child dyads were observed in a playroom under four conditions: yinitial mother-child interaction ymother leaves infant alone in playroom yfriendly stranger enters playroom ymother returns and greets child

16 16 Forms of Attachment zSecurely attached - explores the room when mother is present, becomes upset and explores less when mother is not present, shows pleasure when mother returns zAvoidantly attached - a form of insecure attachment in which child avoids mother and act coldly to her

17 17 Forms of Attachment zAnxious resistant attachment - a form of insecure attachment where the child remains close to mother and remains distressed despite her attempts to comfort

18 18 Hoffman’s Categories of Discipline zPower assertion - use of rewards and real or threatened punishments to control children’s behavior zLove withdrawal - expressing disapproval of child rather than action zInduction - verbal reasoning in which parent induces child to think about harmful consequences of actions

19 19 Baumrind’s Parenting Styles zAuthoritarian - value obedience and use a high degree of power assertion zAuthoritative - less concerned with obedience, greater use of induction zPermissive - most tolerant, least likely to use discipline zNeglectful - completely uninvolved

20 20 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development zAssessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind people’s answers zProposed five stages, each taking into account a broader portion of the social world

21 21 Levels of Moral Reasoning zPreconventional - moral reasoning is based on external rewards and punishments zConventional - laws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws and rules zPostconventional - reasoning based on personal moral standards

22 22 Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation zA focus on direct consequences zNegative actions will result in punishments zPositive actions will result in rewards

23 23 Stage 2: Self-Interested Exchanges zReflects the understanding that different people have different self- interests, which sometimes come in conflict zGetting what one wants often requires giving something up in return

24 24 Stage 3: Interpersonal Accord and Conformity zAn attempt to live up to the expectations of important others zPositive actions will improve relations with significant others zNegative actions will harm those relationships

25 25 Stage 4: Law-and-Order Morality zTo maintain social order, people must resist personal pressures and follow the laws of the larger society

26 26 Stage 5: Human-Rights and Social-Welfare Morality zA balance is struck between respect for laws and ethical principles that transcend specific laws zLaws that fail to promote general welfare or that violate ethical principles can be changed, reinterpreted, or abandoned

Download ppt "1 Social Development The changing nature of relationships with others over the life span."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google