2GenderAs we talked about before, “gender” refers to the cultural and social meanings that are associated with maleness and femaleness.
3Gender RolesBehaviors and traits that culture designates are male or femaleExamples?
4Gender Identity A person’s psychological sense of being male or female Between 2-3 years, a child can identify themselves as either boy or girlHowever, they only can categorize this by hairstyle, clothing, and activities
7Social Worlds Girls play with other girls Boys play with other boys They find the other gender “icky”Boys are far more rigid in their stereotypesIs this true even as they get older?
8Social Learning Theory Posits that gender roles are learned through reinforcement, punishment, and modelingHow might that work?
9But…They found that parental reinforcement really only plays a small role—parents treat their boys and girls rather similarly.
10Soo… what’s the dealio?BooksTelevisionObservation of role models
11Gender Schema TheoryChildren actively develop mental categories for masculinity and femininity.“Trucks are for boys and dolls are for girls.”Tend to make students like their own gender betterLabeling objects as boy or girl objects completely influenced their memory and perception of the object
12Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Piaget’s Cognitive Stages
13Do Kids think differently than adults? Question to ponderDo Kids think differently than adults?Do freshmen think differently than Seniors?
14Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Swiss psychologist who became leading theorist in 1930’sPiaget believed that “children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world”These “understandings” are in the form of structures he called schemas
15Piaget’s ApproachPrimary method was to ask children to solve problems and to question them about the reasoning behind their solutionsDiscovered that children think in radically different ways than adultsProposed that development occurs as a series of ‘stages’ differing in how the world is understood
16Children think differently than adults CognitionAll the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and rememberingChildren think differently than adults
17Stage 1- Sensorimotor Stage From birth to about age twoChild gathers information about the world through senses and motor functionsChild learns object permanence
18Sensorimotor Stage (birth – 2) Information is gained through the senses and motor actionsIn this stage child perceives and manipulates but does not reasonSymbols become internalized through language developmentObject permanence is acquired
19Object PermanenceThe understanding that objects exist independent of one’s actions or perceptions of themBefore 6 months infants act as if objects removed from sight cease to existCan be surprised by disappearance/reappearance of a face (peek-a-boo)
20“Out of sight, out of mind” Object PermanenceThe awareness that things continue to exist even when they cannot be sensed“Out of sight, out of mind”
31ConservationNumberKeywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)In conservation of number tests, two equivalent rows of coins are placed side by side and the child says that there is the same number in each row. Then one row is spread apart and the child is again asked if there is the same number in each.
32ConservationLengthIn conservation of length tests, two same-length sticks are placed side by side and the child says that they are the same length. Then one is moved and the child is again askedif they are the same length.Keywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)
33Conservation Substance In conservation of substance tests, two identical amounts of clay are rolled into similar-appearing balls and the child says that they both have the same amount of clay. Then one ball is rolled out and the child is again asked if they have the same amount.Keywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)
35Concrete Operational Stage (7–12 years) Understanding of mental operations leading to increasingly logical thoughtClassification and categorizationLess egocentricInability to reason abstractly or hypothetically
36Concrete operationalDecentering – this is where a child considers all aspects of a problem to solve itElimination of egocentrism – kids can begin to see the others point of view
37Formal Operational Stage (age 12 – adulthood) Hypothetico-deductive reasoningAdolescent egocentrism illustrated by the phenomenon of personal fable and imaginary audience
38Stage 4- Formal Operational Stage Child can think logically and in the abstractCan solve hypothetical problems (What if…. problems)
42Critique of Piaget’s Theory Underestimates children’s abilitiesOverestimates age differences in thinkingVagueness about the process of changeUnderestimates the role of the social environmentLack of evidence for qualitatively different stages
43Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Vygotsky—children learn from interactions with other peopleZone of proximal development—what a child can do by interacting with another person, but can’t do alone.Critical thinking based on dialogue with others who challenge ideasPiaget—focused on children’s interaction with the physical world
44ScenariosAlthough the parents spent $300 on holiday toys for their 1-year old daughter, she spent more time playing peekaboo by sticking her head in and out of the box that one of the toys came in. Why should the parents have kept their money?
45What activity might interest a 1 year old? Is there anything that might interest them all at once?