Presentation on theme: "PED 392 CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Chapter 6: Self-Concept, Identity, and Motivation."— Presentation transcript:
PED 392 CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Chapter 6: Self-Concept, Identity, and Motivation
Erik Erickson Development is a lifelong process Stages of Psychosocial Development 8 stages that progress from birth through adulthood
Stages of Psychosocial development Trust vs Mistrust Birth to 1 year Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt 1 to 3 years Initiative vs Guilt 3 to 5 years Industry vs Inferiority 6 to 10 years
Stages of Psychosocial development Identity vs Role Confusion 10-20 years Intimacy vs Isolation Early Adulthood Generativity vs Stagnation Middle Adulthood Integrity vs Despair Late Adulthood
Forming an Identity Forming an identity involves committing oneself to a set of beliefs values and adult roles. Children progress through Erickson’s stages to help form their identity.
Definitions Temperament The ability to inhibit responses, shift attention and manage emotions Attachment A close, affective relationship formed between a child and caregiver(s).
Basic Emotions (pg 344) Disgust Active rejection Fear Active withdrawal Anger Forward movements to eliminate obstacles Sadness Passive withdrawl
Basic Emotions (pg 344) Shame Avoiding others, hiding self Guilt Punish self, make things right with others Pride Outwardly showing ones accomplishments
Emotional Development (pg 346) Infancy Basic emotion happiness, fear, sadness, interest, surprise, anger, disgust Early Childhood (2-8 years) Understands others have emotions Self conscious emotions shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, pride
Emotional Development (pg 346) Middle Childhood (8-14 years old) Understands multiple emotions occur at same time Understands rules for displaying emotions Middle and late Adolescence (14 years & up) Reflects on emotions Increased moodiness Ability to hide emotions
Emotional disorders Hyperactivity Short attention span, impulsiveness Aggressive / self injury Acting out, fighting Withdrawl Retreat, failure to engage, fear and anxiety Immaturity Temper tantrums, crying, poor coping Learning difficulty Performing below grade level
Definitions Self-concept Beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and ideas people have about themselves Self-esteem An evaluation of our traits, abilities, and characteristics.
Developmental changes in self representation in childhood Toddler and early childhood Observable characteristics focused on abilities, activities and possessions (I go to school) Early and middle childhood Simple traits, positive representations (I am nice) Middle and late childhood Comparisons, positive and negative, focus on abilities and interpersonal skills (I am good at X, but struggle with Y).
Developmental changes in self representation in childhood Early Adolescence Simple, focused on skills related to interactions with others (I am cheerful, especially with friends) Late adolescence Reflect personal beliefs, values and morals (I am X, but I value Y)
Identity formation Ethnic identity Backgrounds and beliefs Gender Female and male traits (pg 375) Gender role Socialization Attitudes and behaviors appropriate for genders, according to society Racial Backgrounds and beliefs
Stereotypes General beliefs made about people based on common understandings or societal beliefs Can be true, but often are not, always have exceptions. Women are more flexible than men Men are stronger than women
Definitions Intrinsic motivation Internal sources such as curiosity, interest, enjoyment and striving for mastery and growth. Extrinsic motivation Needs external pressures or incentives to accomplish the task. Self Efficacy People’s own assessment of their ability to perform a given task given the current circumstances.