Presentation on theme: "THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. ERIK ERIKSON The psychosocial development theory was based on the development of personality. Erikson was a personality."— Presentation transcript:
THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
ERIK ERIKSON The psychosocial development theory was based on the development of personality. Erikson was a personality theorist and identified that we go through eight stages of development. Each stage is characterised by a psychosocial dilemma.
PSYCHOSOCIAL DILEMMA A conflict between personal impulses and the social world. There is a conflict at each stage of development that must be addressed. How the conflict is managed ultimately shapes an individual’s personality.
STAGE 1: TRUST VERSUS MISTRUST (FIRST YEAR OF LIFE) Fundamental Question: “Is my world predictable and supportive?”
STAGE 1: TRUST VERSUS MISTRUST (FIRST YEAR OF LIFE) Infants depend completely on adults to take care of their needs. If the needs are met, sound attachments are formed and the child should adopt an optimistic, trusting attitude to the world. If needs are not met, a more distrusting, insecure personality will result.
STAGE 2: AUTONOMY VERSUS SHAME AND DOUBT (2-3 YEARS) Fundamental Question: “Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?”
STAGE 2: AUTONOMY VERSUS SHAME AND DOUBT (2-3 YEARS) Parents begin toilet training and regulating their child. The child must begin to take responsibility for things like eating, bathing and dressing. If they master this stage, they acquire a sense of self-sufficiency. If parents have problems here and are never happy with the child’s efforts, a sense of shame and doubt may develop.
STAGE 3: INITIATIVE VERSUS GUILT (4-6 YEARS) Fundamental Question: “Am I good or am I bad?”
STAGE 3: INITIATIVE VERSUS GUILT (4-6 YEARS) The challenge in this stage is for the child to function socially within their family. If the child only thinks about their own needs and desires, then family members may instil feelings of guilt, leading to lower self-esteem. If the child gets along well with others in the family, then a sense of self-confidence should grow.
STAGE 4: INDUSTRY VERSUS INFERIORITY (6 YEARS TO PUBERTY) Fundamental Question: “Am I competent or am I worthless?”
STAGE 4: INDUSTRY VERSUS INFERIORITY (6 YEARS TO PUBERTY) There is a shift from functioning socially within the family to the wider community, such as school. Children who flourish in this stage will develop a sense of competence. Children who struggle with this less-nurturing environment will have feelings of incompetence or inferiority.
STAGE 5: IDENTITY VERSUS ROLE CONFUSION (ADOLESCENCE) Fundamental Question: “Who am I and where am I going?”
STAGE 5: IDENTITY VERSUS ROLE CONFUSION (ADOLESCENCE) The main challenge in this stage is to form a clear sense of identity, by seeing themselves as a unique individual and defining their own personal values that provide them with their sense of direction. Those who are successful tend to develop a healthy and confident sense of identity. Those who are unsuccessful tend to experience a sense of ‘role confusion’ leading to lower self esteem, instability and social withdrawal.
STAGE 6: INTIMACY VERSUS ISOLATION (EARLY ADULTHOOD) Fundamental Question: “Shall I share my life with another or live alone?”
This stage is concerned with whether a person can develop the capacity to share intimacy with others and find a meaningful intimate relationship in their lives. Successful resolution of this crisis promotes empathy and openness. Unsuccessful resolution promotes feelings of isolation as well as shrewdness and a need to manipulate. STAGE 6: INTIMACY VERSUS ISOLATION (EARLY ADULTHOOD)
STAGE 7: GENERATIVITY VERSUS STAGNATION (MIDDLE ADULTHOOD) Fundamental Question: “Will I produce something of real value?”
STAGE 7: GENERATIVITY VERSUS STAGNATION The challenge is to develop worthwhile relationships with the younger generation. Those successful at this stage tends to provide some sort of unselfish guidance to younger people on a frequent basis and feel content to keep doing so. People who are unsuccessful are self-absorbed and have self-indulgent concerns about meeting their own needs and desires and have nothing to do with the younger generation.
STAGE 8: INTEGRITY VERSUS DESPAIR (LATE ADULTHOOD) Fundamental Question: “Have I lived a full life?”
STAGE 8: INTEGRITY VERSUS DESPAIR (LATE ADULTHOOD) The challenge is to avoid dwelling on the mistakes of the past and on one’s imminent death. It is also the time to reflect on and review one’s life. Success at this stage has people finding meaning and satisfaction with life as they look back. Those who are unsuccessful reflect back and see the problems they struggled to deal with. They tend to wallow in bitterness, regret, despair and resentment.
EVALUATION OF ERIKSON STRENGTHS Many psychologists agree that the psychosocial dilemmas in each stage contribute significantly to social-emotional development. Erikson’s theory shows how social situations influence personality development. Further research has occurred since Erikson proposed his theory. Much of it supporting his views on development.
LIMITATIONS The idealised ‘typical’ development patterns suggested by Erikson do not fully explain the enormous personality differences between people. The psychosocial dilemmas tend to be more descriptive than explanatory. This makes them difficult to test and verify. There is no clear evidence to support that problems in earlier stages will lead to issues in later stages.