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Human Development Dancing Baby Dancing Baby. Questions to Consider: How to cover child development in 1 day?!!! Top things to know:  What Shapes a Child?

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Presentation on theme: "Human Development Dancing Baby Dancing Baby. Questions to Consider: How to cover child development in 1 day?!!! Top things to know:  What Shapes a Child?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Development Dancing Baby Dancing Baby

2 Questions to Consider: How to cover child development in 1 day?!!! Top things to know:  What Shapes a Child? How do we know?  What’s so important about attachment anyway?  How Do Children Learn about Their Worlds?

3 What Shapes a Child?  Development Starts in the Womb Infants Have Early Knowledge about the World Infants Have Early Knowledge about the World  Brain Development Promotes Learning  Attachment Promotes Survival Humans Learn from Interacting with Others Humans Learn from Interacting with Others

4 Attachment Promotes Survival  Attachment in other species:

5 Attachment Promotes Survival  Attachment is a strong, intimate, emotional connection between people that persists over time and across circumstances  John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth described infant behaviors that engage adults and adult behaviors that increase attachment

6 Secure Attachment Secure Attachment  Securely attached infant (68%) Cried very little Cried very little Once comforted explored and played readily Once comforted explored and played readily Used mother as secure base Used mother as secure base

7 Babies express Emotions Why is the expression of emotions of significance? 1) Attracts adult ’ s attention 2)Brings adult to the infant 3)Helps communicate expressions of affection, annoyance 4)Helps establish relationships

8 Basic Emotions in Infancy Joy, Anger and Fear are considered basic emotions

9 Smiles are important …. because 1)they help infant achieve a goal (keep caregiver interactive) 2)they reinforce behavior of adult 3)help infant gain control of environment 4) mutual smiling fosters attachment ***In sum, smiling may be an adaptive (survival) behavior. (survival) behavior. Babies laughing Babies laughing

10  Nature AND Nurture Genie Genie  Infant-research techniques: Natural Observations Natural Observations The preferential looking technique The preferential looking technique Length of time the infant looks at an object or eventLength of time the infant looks at an object or event What Shapes a Child? How do we know?

11 How Do Children Learn about Their Worlds?  Perception Introduces the World  Piaget Emphasized Stages of Development

12 Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory  Children gradually learn more about how the world works by little “experiments” in which they test their understanding  Children pass through predictable stages that allow them to see the world in qualitatively different ways

13 Piaget  classify & label  construct knowledge  adapt to environment

14 Adaptation - Scheme  file folder = scheme  Increase in # & complexity  assimilation  accommodation

15 Piaget’s Account: Assimilation and Accommodation  When new experiences fit into existing schemes it is called assimilation  When schemes have to be modified as a consequence of new experiences, it is called accommodation

16 Classify & label  Creating a category

17 Piaget’s Periods of Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years) Infancy Infancy  Preoperational Period (2-7 years) Preschool and early elementary school Preschool and early elementary school  Concrete Operational Period (7-11 years) Middle and late elementary school Middle and late elementary school  Formal Operational Period (11 years & up) Adolescence and adulthood Adolescence and adulthood

18 Piaget’s stages of cognitive development  Sensorimotor  0-2 years  Take in new knowledge through senses, coordinates with body movements  Object permanence

19 Coming to Know the World: Perception  Newborns have a good sense of smell  Newborns can differentiate between tastes

20 Hearing  Babies can hear in the womb during the last trimester  Startle reactions suggest that infants are sensitive to sound Seeing  Newborn Infants can see approx inches  Respond to light, can track objects  By 1 year, the infant’s visual acuity is the same as adults

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22 depth perception visual cliff study  2 months - perceive depth Heart rate slows Heart rate slows  7-8 months show fear of depth Heart rate accelerates Heart rate accelerates Refuse to cross deep Refuse to cross deep

23 Object permanence  Piaget believed that it developed slowly over the sensorimotor stage

24 Piaget’s Periods of Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years) Infancy Infancy  Preoperational Period (2-7 years) Preschool and early elementary school Preschool and early elementary school  Concrete Operational Period (7-11 years) Middle and late elementary school Middle and late elementary school  Formal Operational Period (11 years & up) Adolescence and adulthood Adolescence and adulthood

25 Preoperational thinking (2-7)  Begins to think symbolically  Appearance is Reality

26 Pre-op limitations  centration  conservation

27 Piaget’s Periods of Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years) Infancy Infancy  Preoperational Period (2-7 years) Preschool and early elementary school Preschool and early elementary school  Concrete Operational Period (7-11 years) Middle and late elementary school Middle and late elementary school  Formal Operational Period (11 years & up) Adolescence and adulthood Adolescence and adulthood

28 Concrete operations (7-11)  Develop the ability to reason but only about concrete items  Learn about self through mental manipulation of concepts in adapting to world  Become more reasonable, logical  Bound by physical reality (what I see, here & now)

29 Formal operations  12 and up  Abstract thinking Hypothesis, what if… Hypothesis, what if…

30 Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory  underestimates cognitive ability in infants  overestimates cognitive ability in adolescents  is vague about mechanisms and processes of change  He does not account for variability in children’s performance  His theory undervalues the influence of sociocultural environment


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