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Developmental psychology. The branch of psychology that studies how people change over the lifespan.

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental psychology. The branch of psychology that studies how people change over the lifespan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental psychology

2 The branch of psychology that studies how people change over the lifespan

3 Chromosome

4 A long, threadlike structure composed of twisted parallel strands of DNA; found in the nucleus of the cell

5 Gene

6 The basic unit of heredity that directs the development of a particular characteristic; the individual unit of DNA instructions on a chromosome

7 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

8 The chemical basis of heredity; carries the genetic instructions in the cell

9 Genotype

10 The underlying genetic makeup of a particular organism, including the genetic instructions for traits that are not actually displayed

11 Phenotype

12 The observable traits or characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetics and environmental factors

13 Dominant gene In a pair of genes, the gene containing genetic instructions that will be expressed whether paired with another dominant gene or with a recessive gene

14 Recessive gene

15 In a pair of genes, the gene containing genetic instructions that will not be expressed unless pair with another recessive gene

16 Sex chromosomes

17 Chromosomes designated as X or Y that determine biological sex; the 23 rd pair of chromosomes in humans

18 Sex-linked recessive characteristics

19 Traits determined by recessive genes located on the X chromosome; in males, these characteristics require only one recessive gene to be expressed

20 Prenatal stage

21 The stage of development before birth; divided into the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods

22 Germinal period

23 The first two weeks of prenatal development

24 Embryonic period

25 The second period of prenatal development, extending from the third week through the eighth week

26 Teratogens

27 Harmful agents or substances that can cause malformations or defects in an embryo or fetus

28 Fetal period

29 The third and longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week until birth

30 Temperament

31 Inborn predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain way

32 Attachment

33 The emotional bond that forms between an infant and caregiver(s), especially his or her parents

34 Comprehension vocabulary

35 The words that are understood by an infant or child

36 Production vocabulary

37 The words that an infant or child understands and can speak

38 Sensorimotor stage

39 In Piaget’s theory, the first stage of cognitive development, from birth to about age 2; the period during which the infant explores the environment and acquires knowledge through sensing and manipulating objects

40 Object permanence

41 The understanding that an object continues to exist even when it can no longer be seen

42 Preoperational stage

43 In Piaget’s theory, the second stage of cognitive development, which lasts from about age 2 to age 7; characterized by increasing use of symbols and prelogical thought process

44 Symbolic thought

45 The ability to use words, images, and symbols to represent the world

46 Egocentrism

47 In Piaget’s theory, the inability to take another person’s perspective or point of view

48 Irreversibility

49 In Piaget’s theory,the inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations

50 Centration

51 In Piaget’s theory, the tendency to focus,or center, on only once aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects of the situation

52 Conservation

53 In Piaget’s theory, the understanding that two equal quantities remain equal even though the form or appearance is rearranged, as long as nothing is added or subtracted

54 Concrete operational stage

55 In Piaget’s theory, the third stage of cognitive development, which lasts from about age 7 to adolescence; characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations

56 Formal operational

57 In Piaget’s theory, the fourth stage of cognitive development, which lasts from adolescence through adulthood; characterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations

58 Information-processing model of cognitive development

59 The model that views cognitive development as a process that is continuous over the lifespan and that studies the development of basic mental processes such as attention, memory, and problem solving

60 Adolescence

61 The transitional stage between late childhood and the beginning of adulthood, during which sexual maturity is reached

62 Identity

63 A person’s definition or description of himself or herself, including the values, beliefs, and ideals that guide the individual’s behavior

64 Moral reasoning

65 The aspect of cognitive development that has to do with how an individual reasons about moral decisions

66 Menopause

67 The natural cessation of menstruation and the end of reproductive capacity in women

68 Activity theory of aging

69 The psychosocial theory that life satisfaction in late adulthood is highest when people maintain the level of activity the displayed earlier in life

70 Authoritarian parenting style

71 Parenting style in which parents are demanding and unresponsive toward their children’s needs or wishes

72 Permissive parenting style

73 Parenting style in which parents are extremely tolerant and not demanding; permissive-indulgent parents are responsive to their children, whereas permissive indifferent parents are not

74 Authoritative parenting style

75 Parenting style in which parents set clear standards for their children’s behavior but are also responsive to their children’s needs and wishes

76 Induction

77 A discipline technique that combines parental control with explaining why a behavior is prohibited

78 Mary D. Salter Ainsworth ( )

79 American psychologist who devised the Strange Situation procedure to measure attachment; contributed to attachment theory

80 Renee Baillargeon (b. 1954)

81 Canadian-born psychologist whose studies of cognitive development during infancy using visual rather than manual tasks challenged beliefs about the age at which object permanence first appears

82 Noam Chomsky (b. 1928)

83 American linguist who proposed that people have an innate understanding of the basic principles of language, which he called a “universal grammar.”

84 Erik Erikson ( )

85 German-born American psychoanalyst who proposed an influential theory of psychological development throughout the lifespan

86 Lawrence Kohlberg ( )

87 American psychologist who proposed an influential theory of moral development

88 Jean Piaget ( )

89 Swiss child psychologist whose influential theory proposed that children progress through distinct stages of cognitive development

90 Lev Vygotsky ( )

91 Russian psychologist who stressed the importance of social and cultural influences in cognitive development


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