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© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Motivation Principles.

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1 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Motivation Principles

2 Motivation Motivation : involves a conscious decision to perform one or more activities with greater effort than one performs other activities competing for attention.

3 3 elements 1. Some need, motive or goal that trigger action 2. a selection process that directs the choice of action 3. a level of effort intensity that is applied to the chosen action.

4 Contents Theory of Motivation Identify specific human needs and describes the circumstances under which these needs activate behavior. Deficiency reduction needs- trigger behavior of avoidance- the aim to find relief from deficiencies, deprivations or unpleasant tensions Example-Need for a job Growth aspiration needs motivate people to approach or seek out goals and experience that thee find personally meaningful. Example- pursuit for learning (MBA degree?)

5 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory Hierarchy of Needs Theory There is a hierarchy of five needsphysiological, safety, social, esteem, and self- actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Self-Actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.

6 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs E X H I B I T 6–1 Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. SelfEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological

7 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Assumptions of Maslows Hierarchy Movement up the Pyramid Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. Maslow Application: A homeless person will not be motivated to meditate! Maslow Application: A homeless person will not be motivated to meditate! Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order

8 Aldeferers ERG Theory Existence needs- basic survival needs Related needs - interpersonal contact; acceptance, caring, status Growth needs- personal development and sense of personal worth. McGregors Theory X and Theory Y

9 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Theory X Managers See Workers As… Disliking Work Avoiding Responsibility Having Little Ambition Theory Y Managers See Workers As… Managers See Workers As… Enjoying Work Accepting Responsibility Self-Directed

10 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory Bottom Line: Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction are not Opposite Ends of the Same Thing! Separate constructs –Hygiene Factors--- Extrinsic & Related to Dissatisfaction –Motivation Factors--- Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction Hygiene Factors: Salary Work Conditions Company Policies Motivators: Achievement Responsibility Growth

11 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6–3

12 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. David McClellands Theory of Needs Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Bottom Line: Individuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behavior

13 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Matching High Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6–4

14 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance. But, the relationship between goals and performance will depend on goal commitment –I want to do it & I can do it task characteristics (simple, well-learned) national culture

15 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Goal Setting in Action: MBO Programs Management By Objectives Programs Company wide goals & objectives Goals aligned at all levels Based on Goal Setting Theory Management By Objectives Programs Company wide goals & objectives Goals aligned at all levels Based on Goal Setting Theory

16 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Reinforcement Theory Assumptions: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Assumptions: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Argues that behavior is a function of its consequences.

17 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.

18 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Equity Theory (contd) E X H I B I T 6–8

19 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Equity Theory (contd) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1.Change inputs (slack off) 2.Change outcomes (increase output) 3.Distort/change perceptions of self 4.Distort/change perceptions of others 5.Choose a different referent person 6.Leave the field (quit the job) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1.Change inputs (slack off) 2.Change outcomes (increase output) 3.Distort/change perceptions of self 4.Distort/change perceptions of others 5.Choose a different referent person 6.Leave the field (quit the job)

20 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders Bottom line All three links between the boxes must be intact or motivation will not occur. Thus, Individuals must feel that if they try, they can perform And If they perform, they will be rewarded And When they are rewarded, the reward will be something they care about Expectancy Theory


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