3 Needs Theories 1. Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) 2. Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)3. ERG Theory (Aldefer)4. Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland)
4 ERG Theory 1. Existence Needs 2. Related Needs 3. Growth Needs This is supplemental material for those instructors who would like to elaborate on this material.
5 McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for AchievementThe drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.This is supplemental material for those instructors who would like to elaborate on this material.
6 McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for PowerThe need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.This is supplemental material for those instructors who would like to elaborate on this material.
7 McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for AffiliationThe desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.This is supplemental material for those instructors who would like to elaborate on this material.
8 Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland) Theory stating that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experiences.
10 Cognitive or Process Perspective Theories 1. Equity Theory2. Expectancy Theory3. Goal-setting Theory
11 Process PerspectivesWhy people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals.
12 Theory arguing that we prefer situations of Balance or, Equity. Equity TheoryTheory arguing that we prefer situations of Balance or, Equity.
13 Equity Theory Outcomes Outcome / input (O / I) Ratio Inputs Employee contributions to the organizationOutcomesRewards employees receive from the organizationOutcome / input (O / I) RatioA comparison between self and others
15 Inequity When Your O / I ratio differ from other’s Underreward If other’s O / I ratio is greater than yoursYou experience anger or frustration !OverrewardIf other’s O / I ratio is less than yoursYou may experience guilt !OutcomesselfInputsselfOutcomesotherInputsother<OutcomesselfInputsselfOutcomesotherInputsother>
16 Reaction to Perceived Inequity 1. Reduce inputs2. Increase outcomes3. Rationalize inputs or outcomes4. Change the referent5. Leave
17 Implications for Managers: Equity TheoryImplications for Managers:Communication is essential to assess Equity / Inequity perceptions in employees.
18 before we expend effort necessary to perform at a given level. ExpectancyTheoryTheory arguing that we consider three main issues; (Effort-Performance, Performance-Outcome, and Valence)before we expend effort necessary to perform at a given level.
19 that will lead to the required level of performance. Effort-Performance ExpectancyOur assessment of our effortsthat will lead to the required level of performance.
20 Performance-Outcome Expectancy Our assessment of our performance that will lead to desired outcomes.
21 Perceived relationship between Performance and Rewards / Outcomes. InstrumentalityPerceived relationship between Performance and Rewards / Outcomes.
22 Our assessment of anticipated value of various outcomes or rewards. ValenceOur assessment of anticipated value of various outcomes or rewards.
23 Expectancy Model of Motivation EnvironmentMotivationEffortPerformanceAbilityOutcomeValence
24 Expectancy Theory M = E x I x V For motivated behavior to occur: 1. Effort-to-performance must be greater than 02. Performance-to-outcome must be greater than 03. Sum of valences must be greater than 0
25 Motivating with Expectancy Theory 1.Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs2.Clearly link rewards to individual performance3.Empower employees to make decisions which enhance expectancy perceptions
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