Presentation on theme: "CHURCH HISTORY PART 4 The Reformation in Great Britain."— Presentation transcript:
CHURCH HISTORY PART 4 The Reformation in Great Britain
THE ENGLISH REFORMATION The Revival of the Bible
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class William Tyndale Studying at Oxford and Cambridge he became convinced that the clergy had no knowledge of the Bible. He famously said that he would produce a Bible that the ploughboy could understand.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Banished Scholar Failing to obtain a license from the church to translate and print an English Bible in England he travelled to Germany. By 1525 he had completed the New Testament and the books began arriving in England. He had to travel from place to place as the church in Germany also sought to prevent him doing this work.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Martyred Saint Henry 8 th through Cardinal Wosley sent out agents seeking Tyndale. Eventually he was caught in Antwerp and handed over to the Church. In 1536 he was burnt at the stake. His famous dying prayer was for the King of England’s eyes to be opened. Within a few years the King permitted the distribution of the Bible in English.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Henry 8 th and His Many Wives Apart from the Protestant consciousness developing in England there was a political dispute with Rome developing. To Henry Protestantism could be a tool in his battle with the Pope.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Unpredictability of Henry Faithful Catholic Given the title “Defender of the Faith” by the Pope for a book he wrote. Throughout his reign he was responsible for the deaths of Protestants including Tyndale. Claimed his marriage with Catherine of Aragon was unlawful and sought a divorce. Cranmer gave him the divorce and so he took England out of Rome. Freely dispensed of other wives (Anne Boleyn was executed).
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Breaking The Power of the Church Thomas Cromwell the Chancellor advised the King that the church was subject to the Pope first. Therefore Henry was convinced that he should he the Head of the Church of England. He also closed down the wealthy abbeys and monasteries confiscating their wealth and property. Ironically as he was doing this martyrs such as godly Thomas Bilney were dying at the stake.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Archbishop Cranmer Born in 1489 He became aware of the Lutheran controversy. Spent 3 years studying God’s Word in Greek and Hebrew. He embraced Christ. The King saw his Protestantism as a useful tool in his battle with the Pope. He was a major influence upon the King to print the Bible in English.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Edward 6 th – England’s Josiah He was crowned in 1547 at the age of 9 after Henry’s death. Reformers from the continent visited The images were removed from churches. The Book of Common Prayer was introduced to replace the Catholic Missal. The 39 Articles of Religion were introduced.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Age of Great Preachers Nicholas Ridley John Rogers John Hooper Hugh Latimer
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Age of Great Preachers Nicholas Ridley Like Cranmer he came to a gradual realization of the fullness of the gospel. 1545 he acknowledged that transubstantiation was unscriptural. In 1550 Edward 6 th made him Bishop of London.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Age of Great Preachers John Rogers Educated at Cambridge he was acquainted with Ridley, Hooper and Latimer. He did not embrace Protestantism until the period between 1534 and 1537 when he became close to William Tyndale. Played a role with Coverdale in the translation of Matthew’s Bible. Bishop Ridley appointed him to a number of important positions in London.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Age of Great Preachers John Hooper Converted through the writings of Zwingli. Spent 9 years in Switzerland where he fellowshipped with Bullinger and married a Swiss lady. Was appointed Bishop of Gloucester under Edward 6 th. His consecration was delayed for a year because he refused to wear the vestments he regarded as Popish. Preached 3 to 4 times every day throughout his diocese. Was greatly troubled by the state of his clergy.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Age of Great Preachers Hugh Latimer He described himself as an obstinate Papist. He was converted listening to the testimony of a student called Bilney. He became a powerful preacher in Cambridge inspiring hundreds to seek the Lord. In 1530 he was made one of the Royal Chaplains to Henry 8 th. In 1535 he was made Bishop of Worcester but resigned in 1539 by the passing of the Romish 6 articles. He spent the last year of Henry’s reign in the Tower of London. He assisted Cranmer by living with him in Lambeth palace in the last 6 years of life.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Turning Point In 1553 Edward died. He was replaced by Mary Tudor, the daughter of Catherine of Aragon. She was a devout Catholic. She had a particular grudge against Protestantism as her mother was humiliated. Her deepest hatred was reserved for Archbishop Cranmer.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class England Restored to Popery Papists replaced Protestants in all the positions of influence. She married Philip, Emperor of Spain. Cranmer Latimer and Ridley confined to the Tower of London. Agents were appointed to look out for people who did not attend Mass or support the Catholic Faith.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class 1555 – The Burnings Commenced Burning of Anne Askew, John Lacels, John Adams and John Bleenian at Smithfield
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Martyrs Multiplied The prisons were populated by godly folk. The Bishops then selected who would burn from the crowd. Most of the murdered were ordinary people.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Unsung Heroes Thomas Drowy 15 year old boy burned in Gloucester, May 1555. William Hunter 19 years of age from Brentwood, burned in March 1555. Agnes Prest A Cornish woman Betrayed by her Catholic husband and burned in 1557, aged 54 Anne Askew 25 years of age and burned at Smithfield after making a bold confession
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class John Rogers Wakened on 4 th February 1555 to be taken to the stake. Before his wife and children he said, “that which I have preached will I seal with my blood.” He raised his hands through the flames towards heaven until he could hold them no longer.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class John Hooper Taken to Gloucester to be burned before his people. To Sir Anthony Kingston who pleaded with him to recant he said, “The life to come is more sweet and the death to come is more bitter.” His fire had to be lit three times and he was ¾ hour in the flames before he died in considerable pain.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Latimer and Ridley - Oxford Latimer’s Dying words, “Be of good comfort, Master Ridley and play the man; we shall this day light a candle in England as I trust shall never be put out”
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Archbishop Cranmer Like his brethren he bore a good testimony through his various examinations. In his final month he signed the recantation. On 21 st March 1556 he was brought out to be jeered by his enemies. They were enraged as he publicly renounced his recantation and refused the pope as AntiChrist. As the flames leapt up he held his right hand in the flames with the words, “This unworthy right hand”. Bishop Ryle said that of all the martyrs none showed as much physical courage as Cranmer.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Crimes of Bloody Mary A total of 288 people were burned between 1555 and 1558 The one reason why they were executed was because they refused to accept that Christ was sacrificed at the Mass.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Dawn of a New Era Mary died on 17 th November 1558. The bells rang, bonfires were lit and the people rejoiced. Queen Elizabeth ushered in a new age when the Church returned to the Reformation path. The nation was stirred into Protestantism by the burnings. Elizabeth ordered that a Foxes’ Book of Martyrs be placed in every church so that the sacrifice would be long remembered.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Reformation In Scotland “England, in reforming itself, worked mainly from the political centre. Scotland worked mainly from the religious one. The ruling idea in the former country was the emancipation of the throne from the supremacy of the Pope; the ruling idea in the latter was the emancipation of the conscience from the Popish faith. The more prominent outcome of the Reformation in England was a free State; the more immediate product of the Reformation in Scotland was a free Church.” J.A. Wylie, The History of Protestantism
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Early Witnesses 1433 – Paul Craw executed. A Lollard preacher from Bohemia. Burned at St Andrews with a ball of brass in his mouth to prevent him speaking in death.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Patrick Hamilton – Martyred 1528 A Scotsman man who studied at Wittenberg. He was a bold preacher whose influence was felt throughout Scotland. A Dominican Friar called Alexander Campbell witnessed to his heresy. In death Hamilton said that the friar would meet the Judge in one month. Campbell died within that time. “his reek infected all it blew on”
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Beaton Dictat Hamilton was condemned by Archbishop David Beaton. He was the virtual ruler who dominated the 16 year old James 5 th. He burned various early Protestants. His nephew, Cardinal James Beaton pursued the same policy.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Ministry of George Wishart He fled Scotland for England where he recanted his faith. In the Continent his faith revived. He returned to Scotland and the crowds flocked to hear him preach. He first introduced the Reformed Faith to Scotland as he received it in the school of Bullinger.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class His Martyrdom and Legacy Burned at Saint Andrews in 1546. Speaking of Cardinal Beaton he declared that he would die very soon. A young onlooker was both impressed and inspired by Wishart JOHN KNOX.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class John Knox – The Scottish Reformer In May Beaton was murdered in his castle by those opposed to his power in Scotland. The castle became a place of refuge for those endangered by the power of Rome. In Easter 1547 John Knox became a minister in the castle.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class From The Ministry To The Galley Rome remained in the ascendancy throughout Scotland. The castle was surrounded by the Scots and French. Knox was captured and spent 19 months as a slave on a French warship.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Serving The English King After his release he laboured in England because under Edward 6 th things were more favourable than in Scotland. He became one of the King’s chaplains and was even offered a Bishopric which he refused. When Mary ascended the throne he made good his escape to the continent.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class In Calvin’s Geneva 4 happy and blessed years: “…the most perfect school of Christ that ever was in the earth since the days of the apostles. In other places I confess Christ to be truly preached, but manners and religion to be so truly reformed, I have not yet seen in any other place”. John Knox
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Spiritual State of Scotland The leading nobles had espoused the Reformation. These entered into a Covenant in 1557 to promote Protestantism in their own parishes but they could not abolish the Mass. In 1558 Walter Mill, an 82 year old preacher was burned.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class The Political Unrest In Scotland James 5 th had died in 1542. He had one daughter who was born a week before her father died, Mary. Her mother, Mary of Guise took control of the nation. There was much unrest as Mary, the heir, had married the future King of France. Into this crisis arrived John Knox in 1559 to nurture the fledgling Reformed Faith. This was only 30 years after Hamilton’s martyrdom.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Cometh the Hour…. The Queen had summonsed 4 preachers to appear before her. When she heard Knox had arrived she cancelled the meeting. In St Andrews he preached against the idolatry of Rome. The people abandoned Popery. Other towns followed their example. Unfortunately there were many acts of violence carried out against the monasteries, with which Knox was not associated.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Through Many Dangers The Queen threatened civil war with her subjects. With the help of the English the trouble was averted. Within 15 months of Knox’s arrival Parliament declared Protestantism to be the religion of the Scots. Knox was installed as Minister of St Giles Cathedral.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Presbyterianism Established Offices Employed: 1:Ministers for preaching. 2:Doctors for teaching students. 3:Elders to rule. 4:Deacons to manage the finance. 5:Superintendents to inspect ministers and plant churches.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Presbyterianism Established The Government: 1:Kirk Session for the local church. 2:Presbytery for governing a shire. 3:Synod for governing a province. 4:General Assembly for governing the national church. 5:The clergy and the people had equal powers.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class His Principle “Take from us the purity of the Communion-table, and You take from us the Evangel.” Knox said, “Take from us the freedom of Assemblies, and you take from us the Evangel.”
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class A New Crisis After her husband’s death Mary Queen of Scots returned to take control of the nation, in 1561. One of her first acts was to celebrate mass in Holyrood Palace.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class As a Result of 3 Private Interviews “If there be not in her a proud mind, a crafty wit, a callous heart against God and his truth, my judgement faileth me” Knox
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class A Shameful End She attracted much scandal due to her immorality. After her 3 rd failed marriage she fled to England. She was imprisoned for 18 years. Eventually Elizabeth regarding her as a danger signed her death warrant.
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class John Knox – Died 1572
17 th February 2008Clogher Valley Bible Class Protestantism It is true, no doubt, that Protestantism, strictly viewed, is simply a principle. It is not a policy. It is not an empire, having its fleets and armies, its officers and tribunals, wherewith to extend its dominion and make its authority be obeyed. It is not even a Church with its hierarchies, and synods and edicts; it is simply a principle. But it is the greatest of all principles. It is a creative power. Its plastic influence is all-embracing. It penetrates into the heart and renews the individual. It goes down to the depths and, by its omnipotent but noiseless energy, vivifies and regenerates society. It thus becomes the creator of all that is true, and lovely, and great; the founder of free kingdoms, and the mother of pure churches. The globe itself it claims as a stage not too wide for the manifestation of its beneficent action; and the whole domain of terrestrial affairs it deems a sphere not too vast to fill with its spirit, and rule by its law. Wylie’s History of Protestantism