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Published byAnne Reed Modified over 7 years ago
Educated Europeans were influenced by Renaissance humanism This made them criticize the wealth and power of the Catholic Church. A German monk- Martin Luther- questioned the authority of the church in 1517. At first, Luther only wanted to reform the Catholic Church, but a new form of Christianity was produced- Protestantism
People with wealth were given pardons if they donated large amounts of money to the Catholic Church. An indulgence was a certificate granting this pardon. In 1517, Luther gathered 95 arguments against indulgences and nailed it to the front door of the Wittenberg Cathedral in Germany: These became known as the Ninety-Five Theses
He spoke out that Jesus should be recognized as the Church, not the pope. Encouraged everyone to read the Bible, so he started translating many copies into English. He didn’t get to finish, but his followers finished it for him and this was the creation of the first English Bible
During the 1500s, Martin Luther supported the cause of Church reform; the Pope did not This caused Martin Luther to break away from many Catholic teachings>> led to a religious revolution that changed Europe.
Luther openly attacked Catholic beliefs and said that the pope can make mistakes Argued that the Bible was the only true guide to religious truth- said everyone had a right to read it Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther in 1521, because he thought he was dangerous
Luther’s ideas lead to the creation of the first Protestant church- Lutheranism 1. Faith in Jesus, not good works, gets one to heaven 2. The Bible is the final source for truth about God 3. The church is made up all its believers, not just the clergy
Many rulers got behind it; the rulers could increase their power and lower the Pope’s power by becoming Protestant Rulers would adopt Lutheranism, and then they could impose their own church taxes: this made their kingdoms stronger and the Catholic Church weaker
Believer in Protestantism Took Protestantism and added his own beliefs to create Calvinism. Predestination: after reading the Bible, he said that God already knows the outcomes of all events, and so God has already chosen who will go to heaven and who will not
Began as a political quarrel between the pope and the king Henry VIII of the Tudor Family ruled from 1509-1547 1 daughter, Mary Henry fell out of love and wanted to marry Anne Boleyn Asked the pope for an annulment (like they were never married to begin with)
Catherine came from an important Catholic family, and the pope did not want to upset her family, so he said no. Henry got someone else to do it Henry was excommunicated Henry retaliated by passing the Act of Supremacy which made him head of the Church of England
The Church of England became known as the Anglican Church: accepted some Protestant ideas, but kept most of its Catholic rituals Henry’s daughter, Mary, became queen- she was raised Catholic Mary made the Catholic Church the official church of England again She arrested all who protested her She burned more than 300 protestants at the stake The people were horrified and called her “Bloody Mary”
Henry and Anne Boelyn’s daughter, Elizabeth, became queen when Mary died in 1558 Elizabeth I restored the Anglican Church in England and became one of the greatest rulers in English history.
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