Presentation on theme: "The King of England, Henry VIII During the initial stages of his reign, Henry VIII was a staunch advocate for the papacy He wrote Defence of the Seven."— Presentation transcript:
The King of England, Henry VIII During the initial stages of his reign, Henry VIII was a staunch advocate for the papacy He wrote Defence of the Seven Sacraments in opposition to Luther’s claims First married to Catherine of Aragon, Aunt to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
Where things got difficult... After 18 years of marriage to Catherine, the couple was unable to produce a male heir. Their only child was Mary. Henry’s affections had also moved elsewhere.
Why Henry can’t get a divorce: The marriage was a political tie with the Spanish She was his brothers widow Pope Clement VII will not allow the annulment of the marriage (on the grounds of her being his brothers wife)
The Creation of the Church of England Angry at the delays, Henry VIII went to Parliament and passed laws weakening the power of the Catholic Church Act of Supremacy of 1534 made the King the “Protector and Only Supreme Head of the church and clergy in England” The Church of England was formed, maintaining many of the trappings and institutions of the Church in Rome Henry could now marry his mistress Anne Boleyn
Sir Thomas More The new oath meant that all people in England had to swear an oath to the King as leader of the Church of England. Thomas More (author of Utopia) refused to swear allegiance and would not recognize Henry’s marriage to Anne. He was executed for treason
The legacy... Henry VIII would bear three children over the course of his six marriages. Mary (Catherine of Aragon) Elizabeth (Anne Boleyn) Edward (Jane Seymour) All of his children would at one time inherit the crown.
King Edward IV Reign: 1547-1553 Became King at age 9 Ruled through regents Reign marked by the full establishment of Protestantism in England The Archbishop of Canterbury introduced the Book of Common Prayer during Edward’s reign A sickly child, Edward died at 15
Queen Mary I Reign: 1553-1558 A strict Catholic, Mary overturned most reforms made during Edward’s reign and returned England to Catholicism Mary had hundreds of Protestant dissenters burned at the stake – giving her the nickname Bloody Mary Mary was married to Phillip II of Spain and was unable to produce an heir to the throne
Queen Elizabeth I Reign: 1558-1603 Returned England to Protestantism through the Act of Supremacy of 1559 and the Act of Uniformity of 1559 Elizabeth was Supreme Governor of the Church of England The Religious Settlement held throughout her reign and Elizabeth, having never produced an heir, selected the Protestant King of Scotland as heir to her throne