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Reformation Ideas Spread Mr. Divett. Martin Luther.

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Presentation on theme: "Reformation Ideas Spread Mr. Divett. Martin Luther."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reformation Ideas Spread Mr. Divett

2 Martin Luther

3 Wrote the 95 Theses Condemned the selling of indulgences Started an revolt against the Catholic church Translated the Bible into German Wanted all to have equal access to God and the Bible

4 John Calvin

5 French born Published a book explaining his belief The book also outlined how to start and run a Protestant church Preached predestination Calvin was asked to a religious community in Geneva It was a theocracy, a government run by church leaders

6 Ulrich Zwingli

7 Stressed importance of the Bible Rejected elaborate church rituals From the Swiss city of Zurich

8 The Spread of Reformation The Catholic church fought back against the Protestants They wanted to keep the church unified They wanted to stop the spread of Protestant ideas The Protestant movement carried on

9 An Explosion of Protestant Sects Hundred of Protestant sects started A sect is a religious group Most sects followed in the teachings of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli Many sects adopted even more radical beliefs Those who rejected infant baptism were known as Anabaptists

10 Anabaptists Some Anabaptist sects sought after social change This included: – The abolishment of private property – Violence to speed up God’s day of judgment – Anabaptist once over took Munster, Germany (against the wishes of Luther)

11 Here is where the dead bodies of the Anabaptist leaders were displayed. The cages still hang from St. Lambert’s Church in Munster, Germany

12 Peaceful Anabaptists Not all Anabaptists were violent These modern-day sects trace their religious ancestry to the Anabaptists: – Baptists – Mennonites – Amish

13 English Reformation Henry VIII was a loyal Catholic and opposed the Protestant revolt That was until he wanted an annulment and the pope said no

14 Henry VIII Henry VIII had been married to Catharine of Aragon for 18 years They only had a daughter together, Mary Tudor

15 Henry quit the Catholic church and started his own so he could get an annulment and marry Anne Boleyn He hoped that she would have a son Thomas Cranmer was appointed archbishop and annulled Henry VIII’s marriage Henry and Anne have another daughter, Elizabeth

16 Act of Supremacy – Passed 1534 by Parliament – King was supreme head of the church Catholics did not like this Those who stood up to it were executed Sir Thomas More used to work for Henry but resigned He was later canonized, or made a saint

17 Anne then has three miscarriages Henry has her tried for treason and beheaded Henry then marries Jane Seymour – She finally has him a son, Edward VI – She dies two weeks later Henry keeps marrying…

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19 Growth of the Church of England The church of England (now the Anglican church) practiced most of the same forms of worship as the Catholic church Henry started shutting down Catholic churches and seizing their property

20 Edward VI Henry VIII died in 1547 Edward VI took the throne – He was nine – He was a devout Protestant – He died at age 15

21 Mary Tudor Half sister to Edward VI She took over when he died (against Edwards wishes) Wanted the country to return to Catholic faith

22 Elizabeth I Mary died in 1558 Elizabeth took over Elizabeth made a compromise: – England would keep a lot of Catholic traditions – The Church of England hierarchy would remain – She would not be the divine ruler England avoided religious war

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24 The Catholic Reformation Pope Paul III wanted to reassert Catholic authority and power 1530s and 1540s The pope called the Council of Trent: – Met off and on for 20 years starting in 1545 – Reaffirmed Catholic doctrine – Provided harsh penalties for corruption in clergy

25 Inquisition Revisited The pope strengthened the Inquisition: – It used torture to strengthen the church – It weeded out the heretics – It forbade books, including books by Luther and Calvin

26 Jesuits Established 1540 Strict Catholics Helped combat heresy Left a legacy behind – The majority of Europe remained Catholic in 1600

27 Persecution Both Catholics and Protestants were intolerant Witch hunts- tens of thousands died between 1450 and 1750 as victims of witch hunts Jews were expelled to live in ghettos or separate parts of the city


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