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Developing Fluency: Theory, Research and Practice Georgia’s Reading First.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Fluency: Theory, Research and Practice Georgia’s Reading First."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Fluency: Theory, Research and Practice Georgia’s Reading First

2 Anticipation Guide YesNo Oral reading accuracy is a good predictor of reading comprehension in grades1-2. YesNo Fluency intervention should begin as soon as we measure oral reading fluency. YesNo Fluency intervention should employ grade level and challenging texts. YesNo We should measure silent reading rate because skilled reading is silent. YesNo Accurate and automatic oral reading is necessary but insufficient for comprehension.

3 Game Plan What is fluency? Why is it important? How does it fit within models of reading and reading development? How can we measure it? How can we address it during whole-class and needs-based instruction?

4 Fluency What is fluency?

5 Some Teacher Descriptions Fluency is “reading with expression.” Fluency is “making written language sound like oral language.” Fluency is “reading fast.”

6 Fluency Why is it important?

7 Fluency and Comprehension Is fluent reading evidence of comprehension? Is fluency a prerequisite to comprehension?

8 After it is fully developed, reading fluency refers to a level of accuracy and rate where decoding is relatively effortless; where oral reading is smooth and accurate with correct prosody; and where attention can be allocated to comprehension. Wolf, M., & Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001). Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5,

9

10 Let’s look at the developmental levels of fluency.

11 Automaticity Theory Two requirements of reading – automatic word recognition AND constructing meaning The more energy spent with decoding, the less remaining for meaning construction Laberge & Samuels (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6,

12 Chall, J.S. (1983). Stages of reading development. New York: MacGraw-Hill. Ages and Stages: Chall’s Model 4. Comprehension of multiple perspectives 3. Comprehension of a single perspective 2. Fluency 1. Phonological recoding 0. Alphabet knowledge Stage 0 Birth to K Stage 1 Grades 1 and 2 Stage 2 Grades 2 and 3 Stage 3 Grades 4 to 8 Stage 4 Highschool.

13 Fluency requires the child to use phonics and spelling knowledge automatically (DIBELS LNF, ISF, PSF, NWF)

14 Fluency requires the child to automatically integrate phonics and spelling knowledge to recognize entire words (DIBELS ORF)

15 Fluency requires the child to link recognized words into natural phrases, with appropriate enunciation and emphasis (DIBELS ORF)

16 Fluency in Connected Text (textual) Fluency at the Word Level (lexical) Fluency within Words (sublexical)

17 What are the implications of these developmental levels for curriculum and instruction?

18 How well do the teachers, coaches, and administrators with whom you work understand fluency? Which concepts are new? What do you think we need to do to increase their understanding?

19 How should we measure fluency?

20 Harris, A. J., & Sipay, E. R. (1990). How to increase reading ability (9th Ed.). New York: Longman. Reading Rates (WPM) Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade

21 Rasinski, T. R. (2003). The fluent reader. New York: Scholastic Professional Books. Fluency Norms: WCPM GradeFallWinterSpring

22 NAEP Oral Reading Fluency Scale 4 Large and meaningful phrase groupings. Preserves author’s syntax and includes expressive interpretation. 3 Three- and four-word phrases. Mostly appropriate and preserving syntax. Little or no expressive interpretation. 2 Two-word phrases. Occasional larger groupings, but awkward and unrelated to larger context. 1 Word by word. Occasional two-word or three- word phrases.

23 In GARF, how is fluency measured? KindergartenDIBELS Letter-name fluency Initial sound fluency Phoneme segmentation fluency Nonsense word fluency FirstDIBELS Phoneme segmentation fluency Nonsense word fluency Oral reading fluency Second and Third Grade DIBELS Nonsense word fluency Oral reading fluency

24 How might these automaticity and fluency assessments work together as a system for monitoring student achievement? Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle Accuracy and Fluency High Stakes Test

25 One thing is certain... readers develop reading fluency through reading practice. Let’s try some.

26 How can we support fluency development?

27 Some Generalizations ORF programs and strategies work within a specific developmental window – late first grade through early third grade Increasing the amount of children’s reading is what all approaches have in common Different forms of assistance and modeling may make more difficult selections readable (even grade-level selections) Fluency work develops fluency and comprehension, but not word recognition in isolation

28 Guided Oral Reading But why can’t we just do what we’ve always done? Round Robin Oral Reading Each child reads too little; Engagement is low Teacher-provided feedback is of low quality Instructional time is wasted

29 Four Simple Strategies ChoralReading The teacher leads the entire class or group reading aloud in unison. EchoReading The teacher reads a sentence and then the class rereads it aloud. PartnerReading Pairs of readers alternate reading aloud by a set protocol. Whisper Reading Each child reads aloud (but not in unison) in a quiet voice.

30 What can teachers do with the whole class? Distributed Practice Fluency Development Lesson Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) (For reviews of supplemental fluency curricula, consult and

31 Distributed Practice Children developing phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle need short, frequent, targeted practice sessions. How can teachers facilitate this?

32 Fluency Development Lesson 15 minutes 4 times per week: 1. Teacher selects short text ( words) and prepares two copies for each child 2. Teacher reads the text aloud several times 3. Class reads the text chorally several times with the teacher 4. Students work in pairs to reread the text 3 times each 5. Teacher sends text home for work with parents 6. Several pairs perform for the class Rasinski, Padak, Linek, & Sturtevant (1994). The effects of fluency development on urban second grade readers. Journal of Educational Research, 87,

33 Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) 3 times 35 minutes each week, high-low pairs Text is appropriate for weaker reader 5 minutes: strong reader reads aloud 5 minutes: weaker reader rereads 2 minutes: weaker reader retells 5 minutes: strong reader reads paragraph by paragraph, stopping at each to tell the main idea 5 minutes: weak reader uses same summarization procedure 5 minutes: strong reader predicts content of next half page, reads it aloud, and revisits prediction 5 minutes: weak reader uses same summarization procedure This procedure has been used with students in grades 2-6 Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, & Simmons (1996). Peer-assisted learning strategies in reading: A manual. (Box 328 Peabody, Vanderbilt Univ. Nashville, TN 37203)

34 Stahl, S., Heubach, K., & Cramond, B. (1997). Fluency-oriented reading instruction. Washington, DC: NRRC. Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) Redesigned whole-group basal lesson, grade 2 1.Teacher reads story to children; they discuss 2.Echo and partner readings over the course of the week 3.Rereadings at home as parent listens (15 minutes) 4.Free reading (SSR) minutes This procedure has been effective for second graders especially for those who began second grade at least at the primer level.

35 What do these classroom programs have in common? There is some form of modeling and assistance, either by the teacher or a peer Repetition is planned and organized There are varied “performances” over time

36 Current Practices Whole-class fluency work What fluency strategies have you observed? Are they assisted or unassisted? How consistently are they used? What evidence do you have of their effectiveness? Where are teachers struggling?

37 What about in needs-based groups? Repeated Readings Assisted Readings Tutoring

38 Repeated Readings 1. Teacher selects a passage that is challenging for the child. 2. The child reads it aloud while the teacher times and notes word recognition errors. 3. The teacher charts time and errors. 4. The teacher reviews the challenging words. 5. The child rereads (with continued charting) to a criterion of rate or repetition.

39 Reading Time in Minutes : Seconds 2:00 1:50 1:40 1:30 1:20 1:10 1:00 0:50 0: Number of Times I Read the Same Passage

40 Reading Time in Minutes : Seconds 2:00 1:50 1:40 1:30 1:20 1:10 1:00 0:50 0: Number of Times I Read the Same Passage Week 1, Passage A

41 Reading Time in Minutes : Seconds 2:00 1:50 1:40 1:30 1:20 1:10 1:00 0:50 0: Number of Times I Read the Same Passage Week 1, Passage A Week 2, Passage B

42 Assisted Reading NeurologicalImpress Choral reading technique with teacher tracking and reading into child’s dominant ear. Reading while Listening Children listen to a taped reading while they track. They practice and perform a selection. Closed- caption TV Closed captioning activated while children watch regular programs. They then practice and perform. Computer- assisted Children read text in a digital environment with the option of listening to words or portions.

43 Paired Reading with a Tutor Child chooses a book Child and tutor begin to read chorally Child signals desire to read alone –Tutor provides words that child miscalls –Child and tutor reread sentence chorally –Child continues reading alone

44 Current Practices Needs-Based Fluency Work What are the strategies? Are they assisted or unassisted? How consistently are they used? What evidence do you have of their effectiveness?

45 “The unsettling conclusion is that reading fluency involves every process and subskill involved in reading.” (Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001, p. 220)

46 What next? Consider Your Focus What do the available data tell you about children’s fluency achievement? What materials are available for use in fluency instruction? What do the available data tell you about teachers’ fluency practices?

47 Anticipation Guide YesNo Oral reading accuracy is a good predictor of reading comprehension in grades1-2. YesNo Fluency intervention should begin as soon as we measure oral reading fluency. YesNo Fluency intervention should employ grade level and challenging texts. YesNo We should measure silent reading rate because skilled reading is silent. YesNo Accurate and automatic oral reading is necessary but insufficient for comprehension.


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