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Addressing Issues in Braille Reading Fluency. Reading Fluency Reading fluency refers to a level of reading accuracy and rate where decoding is relatively.

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Presentation on theme: "Addressing Issues in Braille Reading Fluency. Reading Fluency Reading fluency refers to a level of reading accuracy and rate where decoding is relatively."— Presentation transcript:

1 Addressing Issues in Braille Reading Fluency


3 Reading Fluency Reading fluency refers to a level of reading accuracy and rate where decoding is relatively effortless; where oral reading is smooth and accurate with correct prosody (expression); and where attention can be allocated to comprehension” (Wolfe & Katzir-Cohen, 2001, p. 219).

4 Reading Fluency Pertains to both oral and silent reading Accuracy: Recognizing words automatically, with little effort Speed: Rate of reading, words per minute

5 Reading Fluency Appropriate expression: Using phrasing, tone and pitch so that oral reading sounds conversational Comprehension: Understanding that is evaluated through retellings, answering questions, discussion, dramatic interpretation, art, etc.

6 Fluency Issues (Jerry Johns) Type 1: The student reads fluently (sounds good) but exhibits little comprehension Type 2: The student struggles with words and meaning Type 3: The student stumbles over words but has surprisingly strong comprehension

7 Fluency Issues (Jerry Johns) Type 4: The student reads material slowly, at or near grade level, with acceptable to good comprehension Type 5: The student’s oral reading lacks prosody (a factor of comprehension) Type 6: The student has generally poor reading skills and is functioning far below grade level

8 Print: Typical Oral Reading Speeds ( Hasbrouck and Tindal, 2006) Grade Words per minute (50 th percentile (Spring) ) 1 53 2 89 3 107 4 123 5 139 6 150 7 8 151

9 ABC Study: Oral Reading Fluency Results (BRI, Jerry Johns) Grade WPM range Mean OFR for sighted students @ 50 percentile* 1 16 - 48 34.13 53 2 19 – 89 47.52 89 3 21 - 86 53.19 107 4 15 - 115 62.44 123 * Hasbrouk and Tindal, 2006

10 Factors that Impact Fluency Word recognition: fast, accurate Having large sight word vocabulary Reading widely and often provides practice to solidify skills and promotes confidence in reading Opportunities to participate in oral reading Listening to teachers read aloud on a daily basis to provide a model

11 Additional Factors that may Influence Fluency for Braille Readers Tactile perceptual abilities and hand use Knowledge of contractions Availability of braille materials Opportunities for regular reading practice

12 Poor reading fluency When a student must expend energy on decoding words there is little concentration left for comprehension A student who has trouble recognizing/reading words has limited reading fluency and therefore, limited comprehension

13 Reading fluency Fluency increases comprehension Fluency with text helps to affirm and support a student’s positive perception as a reader

14 Detecting Fluency Issues Basic Reading Inventory Jerry Johns Diagnostic Reading Scales Spache Woodcock Johnson Dibels Running Records and Miscue Analysis Braille Reading Miscue Analysis

15 Arianna Eighth grade Diagnostic Reading Scales: fourth grade level


17 Tactile Perceptual Skills: Hand use Reading Mechanics –Spatial skills –Finger use –Finger and hand position –Lightness of touch

18 Hand Use


20 Tactile Perceptual Skills: Character Recognition Character recognition –Tactile perceptual skills –Accurate character recognition –Light touch –Understanding of dot configuration (memory) –Issues Reversals Scrubbing

21 Character Recognition

22 Fluency Building Strategies Model oral reading Match students’ reading abilities to appropriate materials for instruction –Offer daily opportunities for students to read easy materials independently Provide guided oral reading opportunities

23 Fluency Building Strategies Repeated Readings Assisted Reading

24 Fluency Building Strategies Teacher read alouds Language experience Phonemic awareness Building a basic sight vocabulary Word identification: Decoding strategies ( Jerry Johns)

25 Strategies

26 Supplemental Intervention Reading Programs Examples: –Read Naturally –Fast Track Reading –Wilson Fluency/Basic Reviews: –Florida Center for Reading Research ( –Oregon Reading First Center (


28 Braille Fluency Building Blocks Mechanical Skills Exhibits few regressive hand movements (either vertically or horizontally) Uses very little pressure when touching braille dots Utilizes two handed reading technique in which the left hand locates the beginning of the next line, while the right hand finishes reading the previous line.

29 Braille Fluency Building Blocks Mechanical Skills Uses at least four fingers at all times Demonstrates the ability to scan efficiently when reading both vertical and horizontal format. Demonstrates the ability to read letter accurately without confusing letters that are mirror images of other letters.

30 Braille Fluency Building Blocks Consistent Character Recognition –Precision Teaching Over-learning

31 Building Speed (Jerry Whittle) Provide instruction that includes: Daily reading practice, using materials that are easy and interesting Setting goals and charting progress –# of pages –Words per minute Schedule braille reading when student is least fatigued Practice reading aloud

32 Technology Video

33 Technology Video clip

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