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Literacy in the Middle Grades Chapter 5 “Eliminating Obstacles to Fluency” Gail E. Tompkins California State University, Fresno Prepared by Helen Hoffner.

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Presentation on theme: "Literacy in the Middle Grades Chapter 5 “Eliminating Obstacles to Fluency” Gail E. Tompkins California State University, Fresno Prepared by Helen Hoffner."— Presentation transcript:

1 Literacy in the Middle Grades Chapter 5 “Eliminating Obstacles to Fluency” Gail E. Tompkins California State University, Fresno Prepared by Helen Hoffner Holy Family University This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 2 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Reading Fluency…what is it? Components of Reading Fluency  Accuracy  Accuracy refers to the ability to recognize words automatically.  Speed  Reading speed refers to the rate at which students read. To read fluently, students must read at least 100 words per minute.  Prosody  Prosody is the ability to orally read sentences expressively, with appropriate phrasing and intonation.

3 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 3 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Dysfluent readers…who are they? Read hesitantly and without expression Struggle with comprehension There is NO SINGLE COMMON problem Refer to Figure 5-1 in text on p. 119 for detailed list of characteristics

4 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 4 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. How to diagnose Dysfluent Readers By the time students reach 4 th grade, they SHOULD be fluent readers Teachers need to identify struggling readers (those who have instructional reading levels more than a year below their grade level) Teachers need to screen these students for fluency problems by listening to them read aloud in an instructional-level text While listening, the teacher needs to determine which fluency component(s) the student struggles with There are commercial tests that can also be used

5 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 5 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5 Word-Identification Strategies : Strategies students use to read unfamiliar words Phonic Analysis Decoding by Analogy Syllabic Analysis Morphemic Analysis Students’ choice of strategy depends on their knowledge about words and the complexity of the unfamiliar word.

6 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 6 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5 Four Principles of Fluency Instruction  Teachers model fluent reading for students.  Teachers provide support while students are reading.  Teachers have students do repeated readings of brief texts.  Teachers focus students’ attention on chunking words into meaningful phrases.

7 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 7 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Helping Dysfluent Readers Word Wall Words posted on the wall that would be considered high- frequency for grade level and/or content High Frequency Words are the common words that students read and write-should also be their sight-word vocabulary (see list on p. 125 in text) Minilessons minute lessons which focus on a specific skill/strategy Guided Reading Meeting with small groups of students at same/similar instructional reading level Chapter 5

8 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 8 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Helping Dysfluent Readers (Continuted) Choral Reading Small groups of students read poems aloud to classmates. Readers Theatre Students practice reading story scripts. Partner Reading Pairs of students read or reread books together.

9 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 9 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. And yet more ways to help… Silent Sustained Reading (SSR) Providing time for students to silently read a book at their independent reading level Listening Centers Students read along in a book at their independent reading level while listening to it being read aloud on a CD or audiocassette at a listening center

10 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 10 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Reading Stamina Reading stamina refers to the ability to read silently for increasingly longer periods of time. Students develop reading stamina by reading books at their independent level. Teachers use periods of SSR to help students develop reading stamina. Chapter 5

11 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 11 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Round Robin Reading should not be used because the practice:  Wastes valuable class time  Embarrasses struggling readers  Encourages inefficient reading habits Chapter 5

12 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 12 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Writing Fluency…what is it? Fluent writers spell words automatically and write quickly They can focus on their ideas Components of writing fluency Accuracy Writing speed Legibility Voice

13 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 13 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Helping Dysfluent Writers Quickwriting Students write rapidly and without stopping as they explore an idea. Daily opportunities for assisted and unassisted practice Students become fluent writers as they practice writing. Chapter 5

14 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 14 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Components of Writing Fluency  Accuracy  Fluent writers write most words automatically.  Writing Speed  Students must write quickly to keep pace with their thinking.  Legibility  Students must be able to decipher what they have written.  Voice  Voice gives an emotional feeling to a piece of writing. Chapter 5

15 Literacy in the Middle Grades 2e Gail E. Tompkins 15 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Writing Stamina Young adolescents must be able to rapidly form letters and spell words. Students become fluent writers as they practice writing, and they need opportunities for both assisted and unassisted practice. Chapter 5


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