2Reading Fluency…what is it? Components of Reading FluencyAccuracyAccuracy refers to the ability to recognize words automatically.SpeedReading speed refers to the rate at which students read. To read fluently, students must read at least 100 words per minute.ProsodyProsody is the ability to orally read sentences expressively, with appropriate phrasing and intonation.
3Dysfluent readers…who are they? Read hesitantly and without expressionStruggle with comprehensionThere is NO SINGLE COMMON problemRefer to Figure 5-1 in text on p. 119 for detailed list of characteristics
4How to diagnose Dysfluent Readers By the time students reach 4th grade, they SHOULD be fluent readersTeachers need to identify struggling readers (those who have instructional reading levels more than a year below their grade level)Teachers need to screen these students for fluency problems by listening to them read aloud in an instructional-level textWhile listening, the teacher needs to determine which fluency component(s) the student struggles withThere are commercial tests that can also be used
5Chapter 5Word-Identification Strategies : Strategies students use to read unfamiliar wordsPhonic AnalysisDecoding by AnalogySyllabic AnalysisMorphemic AnalysisStudents’ choice of strategy depends on their knowledge about words and the complexity of the unfamiliar word.
6Four Principles of Fluency Instruction Chapter 5Four Principles of Fluency InstructionTeachers model fluent reading for students.Teachers provide support while students are reading.Teachers have students do repeated readings of brief texts.Teachers focus students’ attention on chunking words into meaningful phrases.
7Helping Dysfluent Readers Chapter 5Helping Dysfluent ReadersWord WallWords posted on the wall that would be considered high-frequency for grade level and/or contentHigh Frequency Words are the common words that students read and write-should also be their sight-word vocabulary (see list on p. 125 in text)Minilessons10-20 minute lessons which focus on a specific skill/strategyGuided ReadingMeeting with small groups of students at same/similar instructional reading level
8Helping Dysfluent Readers (Continuted) Choral ReadingSmall groups of students read poems aloud to classmates.Readers TheatreStudents practice reading story scripts.Partner ReadingPairs of students read or reread books together.
9And yet more ways to help… Silent Sustained Reading (SSR)Providing time for students to silently read a book at their independent reading levelListening CentersStudents read along in a book at their independent reading level while listening to it being read aloud on a CD or audiocassette at a listening center
10Chapter 5Reading StaminaReading stamina refers to the ability to read silently for increasingly longer periods of time.Students develop reading stamina by reading books at their independent level.Teachers use periods of SSR to help students develop reading stamina.
11Round Robin Reading should not be used because the practice: Chapter 5Round Robin Reading should not be used because the practice:Wastes valuable class timeEmbarrasses struggling readersEncourages inefficient reading habits
12Writing Fluency…what is it? Fluent writers spell words automatically and write quicklyThey can focus on their ideasComponents of writing fluencyAccuracyWriting speedLegibilityVoice
13Helping Dysfluent Writers Chapter 5Helping Dysfluent WritersQuickwritingStudents write rapidly and without stopping as they explore an idea.Daily opportunities for assisted and unassisted practiceStudents become fluent writers as they practice writing.
14Components of Writing Fluency Chapter 5Components of Writing FluencyAccuracyFluent writers write most words automatically.Writing SpeedStudents must write quickly to keep pace with their thinking.LegibilityStudents must be able to decipher what they have written.VoiceVoice gives an emotional feeling to a piece of writing.
15Chapter 5Writing StaminaYoung adolescents must be able to rapidly form letters and spell words.Students become fluent writers as they practice writing, and they need opportunities for both assisted and unassisted practice.