Presentation on theme: "Fluency. What is Fluency? The ability to read a text _______, _________, and with proper __________ –_________: ease of reading –_________: ability to."— Presentation transcript:
What is Fluency? The ability to read a text _______, _________, and with proper __________ –_________: ease of reading –_________: ability to read without errors
Why is Fluency Important? Research says: Successful readers… orely primarily on the __________ in the word rather than context or pictures to identify familiar and unfamiliar words. oprocess virtually every letter. ouse ______________________ to identify words. ohave a reliable __________ for decoding words. oread words for a sufficient number of times for words to become automatic.
Automaticity with Code Definition: –Reading words with no noticeable cognitive or ____________. It is having mastered word recognition skills to the point of overlearning. Fundamental skills are so “____________” that they do not require conscious attention. –Skills that are automatic: shifting gears on a car writing your name playing a musical instrument
Students who are automatic with the code… Identify ________________________ accurately and quickly. Identify familiar spelling ________________ to increase decoding efficiency. Apply maximum resources to the difficult task of blending together isolated phonemes to make words. Apply knowledge of the ______________ to identify words in isolation and connected text fluently.
What do fluent readers look like? More fluent readers… Need to direct relatively little effort to the act of reading, allowing them to focus active attention on ________ and ________________. Less fluent readers… Must direct considerable effort to the act of _____________, leaving little attention for reflecting on its meaning and message.
How Fluent? It is not enough for students to simply meet a goal; they must meet the goal by a specified time period so that they can make the necessary progress they need to develop into lifelong readers. –End of 1 st grade: ___ cwpm (correct words per minute) or more –End of 2 nd grade: ____ cwpm or more –End of 3 rd grade: ______ cwpm or more
Instructional Approaches _________________ –Repeated reading procedures –Paired reading _______________ –Silent reading Accelerated Reader Drop Everything And Read (D.E.A.R.) ** Research has not yet confirmed independent silent reading as a means of improving fluency and overall reading achievement
Teaching Fluency: Critical features of Fluency instruction
Effective Fluency Instruction Three decisions: –Selecting appropriate __________________(i.e., letter sounds students can produce accurately but not fluently). –Scheduling sufficient ____________ (multiple opportunities per day). –Systematically increasing the ________ of response.
Passage Reading Structured activity in which students can read stories or connected text designed to provide practice and application of ____________ and ________________ skills. Passage reading provides students the ____________ to become accurate and fluent.
Levels of Challenge Independent Level: ____% Instructional Level: _________% Frustration Level: _____% or lower For fluency building, materials should be at ________________ level or above. (Modified from Hasbrouck, 1998)
How to Determine Appropriate Level Text Select text that students read with 95% accuracy # of words read correctly total words read Example: 100 words read correctly 125 total words read 80% accuracy ________________ be appropriate for fluency building % accuracy 80% accuracy
Fluency programs and materials What you should look for in materials to build fluency: –Are passages within the learner's decoding range? (95% accuracy or higher) –Is there an ______________ strategy for teaching students to transition from accuracy to fluency? –Is there _____________ opportunity for fluency building? –Is there ____________ in words (i.e., words show up multiple times in different text)? –Are target rates identified?
Oral Reading Fluency Programs Reading Mastery (focus on fluency checkouts) –Individual oral reading fluency checkouts scheduled every 5 lessons beginning at lessons 108, Level 1. –Target rates and error limits are established systematically –Student performance is graphed every 5 lessons documenting whether students reached reading criterion.
What is PALS for Beginning Readers? Peer Assisted Learning Strategies A ___________________ program to practice beginning reading skills All students work in _________ several times each week for reading practice activities
Purpose of PALS To develop important ________________ skills for young children To provide teachers with a practical and effective means of meeting early literacy needs for all students in _________________________
Important Features of PALS ______________ (Coaches and Readers) _______________ activities _______________ support More time engaged on task Includes __________ students Opportunities for ___________ for all students Encourages positive ________________ Practical AND effective Opportunities to _________ student progress
Benefits of PALS Meets the needs of increasingly diverse population in classrooms Strengthens general education’s capacity to meet academic needs of broader range of children Uses empirically validated instructional practices
Read Naturally (supplemental fluency building program for grades mid 1-6) –A supplemental tape-recording program that build on three primary practices: model oral reading, repeated readings, and progress monitoring. –Students are place in appropriate level text and practice listening to and reading with tape-recorded passages. –Comprehension questions are included for each passage.