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Pre-Solo Training Module

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1 Pre-Solo Training Module
Flight Briefing: Lesson 10 Emergency Procedures In cooperation with Mid Island Air Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)

2 Lesson 10 Objectives During this briefing, you will learn the procedures for dealing with different emergencies, most notably, engine failures. You will learn how to cope with in-flight engine abnormalities, engine failures, other system failures, and fires. Upon completion of this briefing, you will demonstrate proper response to various simulated in-flight emergencies.

3 Detecting Abnormalities
It is rare for an emergency situation to arise without any warning whatsoever. Learning how to detect an abnormality before it becomes an emergency is an important skill that will help you enhance the safety of flight. If you can detect and correct an abnormal situation before it gets out of control and becomes an emergency, you can take corrective action to prevent an emergency.

4 Emergency Prevention Obviously, the best way to avoid an emergency is to actively do your best to prevent one. Make sure you always do a complete and thorough preflight inspection. Always complete the proper flight planning. Know your personal limitations and do not exceed them. Make an active effort to prevent complacency, regardless of your experience. Keep current on emergency procedures throughout your flying career; practice them regularly and keep the procedures fresh in your mind for all the aircraft you fly.

5 Detecting Abnormalities
Use all of your senses while you are flying. At this point in your training you’ve learned (perhaps subconsciously) how the airplane sounds, feels, and even smells during normal operations. Any sense that is abnormal is cause for further investigation.

6 Investigating Abnormalities
Once one of your senses detects an abnormality, you can use your other senses to help further identify the cause: An unusual smell will trigger your eyes to look for the source, etc. Check aircraft system gauges Fuel quantity and pressure, oil and engine temperatures, oil pressure, electrical system output, circuit breakers/fuses, etc.

7 Aircraft System Abnormalities
A problem with an aircraft system can range from an insignificant malfunction to cause for an immediate emergency landing. It will not be possible to train you for every possible circumstance. Your emergency procedures training will concentrate on emergency procedures for the most serious emergencies, as well as the decision making process that you will be able to use in any situation.

8 Emergency Procedures Training
In an emergency, you can do whatever is necessary to meet the needs of the emergency. FAA: 91.3 Responsibility and Authority of Pilot in Command 91.3(a) The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft. 91.3(b) In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action, the pilot in command may deviate from any rule of this part to the extent required to meet that emergency. 91.3(c) Each pilot in command who deviates from a rule under paragraph (b) of this section shall, upon the request of the Administrator, send a written report of that deviation to the Administrator.

9 Engine Failures There are a variety of engine failures a pilot must be prepared to handle. Though reliable, engines can quit at any time or in any phase of flight. It could be a sudden failure, or a gradual power loss. The most critical failure is the sudden failure at low altitude. Regardless of engine failure type, the initial procedure is the same: Pitch for best glide speed, and trim to maintain best glide speed.

10 Step 1: Best Glide Speed Best glide speed is the airspeed at which the lift to drag ratio of the airplane is maximized. In the SportStar, best glide occurs at 57 knots. Best glide speed will provide you with two very important things: Maximum range without power, which will give you the most options for selecting an emergency landing site; and Maximum time in the air, which will give you the most available time to complete the engine failure procedure and prepare for an emergency landing.

11 Maximum Range To get the most range/time aloft out of the airplane, it is important to not only maintain best glide speed, but also to reduce the drag on the airplane to a minimum. Close the canopy Retract the flaps

12 Step 2: Emergency Landing Site Selection
Once best glide is established, you need to select a landing site and start heading toward it. Try to pick an area free of people and obstructions, with as much space to land as possible. If several options appear to be available, you want (best to worst): A runway, paved or grass A field with short grass/vegetation or packed dirt Open road with no traffic or obstructions A field with medium-tall vegetation or plowed dirt Sand Water Highway/median (traffic permitting only) Trees You never want to attempt an emergency landing in a populated area. You are better off trying to land in tree tops than in a neighborhood.

13 Emergency Landing Site Selection
If the engine failure occurs shortly after takeoff, time to select an emergency landing field is extremely limited. If time is not sufficient to select and maneuver to an emergency landing field, the best course of options is to continue straight ahead, maneuvering as necessary to avoid large obstacles, and crash land under control. Regardless of where you land, you are better off landing under control than losing control while attempting to aggressively maneuver around obstacles. Even if you hit something, if impact is under control, the airplane structure is designed to give you some protection. If you impact out of control, the aircraft structure may not be able to provide you enough impact protection.

14 Emergency Landing Philosophy
In the event of an emergency, you should by all means consider the aircraft expendable. Your task as pilot in command is to prevent or minimize injuries to yourself, your passengers, and those on the ground. At this point, the insurance company already owns the airplane. You have just borrowed it from them. Don’t try to do them any favors by attempting to save the airplane!

15 Emergency Landing After Takeoff
In some cases, it may be possible to make a 180 degree turn back to the departure runway after takeoff if the engine quits on climb out. Unless you are absolutely sure you have enough altitude to accomplish the maneuver and land safely (500 ft. absolute minimum), DO NOT ATTEMPT IT. Turning around successfully at low altitude requires near perfect flying technique; lower nose, medium bank. Turning around requires more than 180 degrees of turn. You have to do a 180, and then correct back to centerline, resulting in approximately 270 degrees of turn. If you do this, you are now landing with a tailwind. This maneuver might not be possible on short runways.

16 Emergency Landing After Takeoff
Before you can consider a 180 degree turn back to the runway, you must have practiced this maneuver at altitude, and determined your exact altitude loss. Then, add about a 50% safety margin, to account for the fact that it takes precious seconds to recognize what has happened and react. If in doubt, land straight ahead.

17 Gliding to Landing Site
Once you’ve selected an emergency landing site, turn toward it and trim the airplane to glide toward it at best glide speed. Start planning your approach to the landing site considering wind, terrain, obstacles, and approach paths. Only after you’ve got the airplane heading toward an emergency landing field and under control, you can try to troubleshoot the problem.

18 Trouble-Shooting/Engine Out Checklist
The Engine Failure Checklist is designed to be memorized so that you can accomplish it quickly without needing to find it on paper. The Flow: to help you memorize the checklist items in addition to making trouble-shooting faster, the items on the check list progress sequentially in a path that you can easily commit to memory. This is called a “flow.”

19 What is a “Flow”? The word “Flow” is not an acronym. (It doesn’t stand for anything.) By Flow, we mean an orderly sequence of events that is easy for you to remember and follow. Most common is a spatial flow, where your eyes (and hands) move systematically, in a constant direction, from one item to the next, in proper sequence.

20 The “Flow” Emergency Checklist
In the SportStar, for example, you can start the checklist at the fuel selectors on the floor, working your way up and over to the left: Fuel Selector – switch tanks, or select BOTH if available Choke-OFF Throttle-SET (mid-range) Ignition Switches-CHECK ON BOTH Fuel Pump-ON Then, Starter-If propeller has stopped completely, engage starter to attempt a re-start. If the propeller is wind-milling, engaging the starter is not necessary (theoretically. You can try anyway). If the engine still does not restart, continue preparing for an emergency landing. If time permits, leave the engine controls such that the engine can restart if conditions allow. Remember to maintain best glide airspeed during restart attempt.

21 Attempting the Restart
The “Flow” will help you restart the engine as soon as possible if it is possible to restart the engine. The engine may be difficult to restart at altitudes above 4,000 feet because of lower air pressure. If an attempted restart is necessary above 4,000 feet, try at first with the choke off, if that is not successful try different choke settings or wait until the aircraft is below 4,000 feet. If you start getting close to your emergency landing site and the engine will not restart, secure the engine to minimize the chance of a post-landing fire. If there is an engine fire, fuel leak, or any circumstance you determine will be unsafe to attempt a restart, do not troubleshoot; go straight to the securing engine procedure.

22 Securing the Engine To reduce chances of a post-landing fire or to attempt to put out an in-flight fire, follow the engine securing drill. The securing drill runs in the same “flow” as the engine troubleshooting/restart checklist, except to secure, turn equipment off instead of on. Fuel selector - OFF Throttle-IDLE Ignition switches - BOTH OFF Fuel pump-OFF Choke-OFF

23 Preparing for Emergency Landing
Once the engine is secure, prepare yourself, passenger, and the airplane for the emergency landing. Seats and seatbelts-Secure Canopy-Closed and latched Declare an emergency if possible On emergency frequency , or with any ATC facility. “Mayday, mayday, mayday,” then give your position, the nature of your emergency, and intentions. If possible, include the number of people on board and fuel remaining in your transmission. Set transponder to the emergency code 7700, if time permits.

24 Other Emergencies Fire Electrical System Failure VFR into IMC
Medical Emergency Flight Control jam Exact procedures vary between aircraft. Consult your Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and emergency checklists; discuss with your instructor.

25 In any emergency: Remain calm (or best attempt)
Keep aircraft under control Consult emergency procedures checklist when possible In all cases, fly the airplane first!

26 Review Questions What senses should you employ in detecting abnormalities? At what altitude should you attempt to return to the runway if you experience an engine failure on takeoff? What should you do if you are below that altitude? What is the name of the procedures you follow in the event of an engine failure in flight? What speed should you establish in the event of an engine failure? What is your first responsibility in an emergency? Write down your answers before continuing to next slide

27 Review Answers What senses should you employ in detecting abnormalities? All of them: sight, smell, sound, feel At what altitude should you attempt to return to the runway if you experience an engine failure on takeoff? Never less than 500 feet AGL What should you do if you are below that altitude? Land straight ahead What is the name of the procedures you follow in the event of an engine failure in flight? Flow What speed should you establish in the event of an engine failure? Best glide airspeed (57 knots in a SportStar) What is your first responsibility in an emergency? Prevent or minimize injuries Review any missed questions before continuing to today’s flight.

28 On Today’s Flight We will simulate engine failures at altitude (but not shut down the engine). You will establish best glide airspeed, select a suitable emergency landing site, and set up an approach to that site. On the way to a simulated emergency landing, you will walk through all the troubleshooting and engine restart procedures. Thanks to Mid Island Air Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)

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