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Pre-Solo Training Program

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Presentation on theme: "Pre-Solo Training Program"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre-Solo Training Program
Flight Briefing: Lesson 1 Basic Flight In cooperation with Mid Island Air Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)

2 Lesson 1 Objectives During this briefing, we will introduce the procedures for preparing an airplane for flight, how to taxi, the effects of the flight controls, and basic flight maneuvers including holding altitudes, headings, basic turns, climbs, and descents. Upon completion of this briefing, you will be ready to practice basic flight maneuvers.

3 Pre-Flight Inspection
It is very important to make sure that the airplane is in a safe, airworthy condition prior to flight. The pre-flight inspection is accomplished so that the pilot can check the airplane for any problems that could compromise the safety of flight. We’ll go around the airplane later together to perform this inspection

4 Attitude Flying The term “Attitude” refers to the position of the nose and wings relative to the horizon. When flying the airplane, you set the attitude to get the performance you are looking for: To make a turn, set a turning attitude; to climb or descend, set the attitude as necessary, nose up or nose down, etc.

5 Pitch The term “Pitch” refers to the position of the nose relative to the horizon. Pitch is controlled by the elevator or stabilator which is connected to the control stick and activated by moving the stick forwards or backwards. Pull back, pitch increases (nose up) Push forward, pitch decreases (nose down)

6 Pitch Pitch for climb or slow speed Pitch for level flight
Pitch for descent or high speed.

7 Bank The term “Bank” refers to the angle of the wings to the horizon.
Bank is controlled with the ailerons on the wings. Control stick left=Bank left; Control stick right=Bank right

8 Bank Attitude for right turn Attitude for level flight
Attitude for left turn

9 Yaw The term “Yaw” is used to describe the left or right sideways motion of the nose. Yaw is controlled with the rudder on the tail. The rudder is connected to the rudder pedals on the floor of the airplane Push on the left rudder, the nose swings left. Push on the right rudder, the nose swings right.

10 Yaw

11 Flying is Easy! Set attitude for what you want, set power for what you need, monitor performance of the airplane and adjust attitude and power as necessary. Attitude + Power = Performance!

12 Straight and Level Not changing heading (direction)
Not changing altitude. Set bank attitude to wings level Set pitch attitude to no climb/no descent You will have to learn where the horizon will appear to be for this. Check the altimeter occasionally and make small adjustments as necessary.

13 Straight and Level Looking ahead.

14 Straight and Level Looking to sides

15 Using Trim The trim control allows you to reduce the pressures you must apply to the controls to hold your desired attitude. If you need to constantly pull back on the stick to hold the nose up, trim nose up and the pressures required will be reduced; opposite if forward pressure required to keep nose down. Keeping the airplane in trim will make it easier to fly and increase your ability to control it.

16 Using the Instruments You can use the instruments to check your altitude and other information, but remember to spend most of your time (at least 90%) looking out side! Always be looking out for other airplanes

17 Basic Turns To make a turn, set a turning attitude: Bank in the direction you want the airplane to go. The more steeply you bank, the faster the airplane will turn. Look before you turn: Always clear the area in which you are about to turn. Make sure there are no potential collision hazards with other aircraft.

18 Using the Rudder in Turns
The rudder controls the airplanes “yaw,” the sideways movement of the nose left or right. When the airplane is banked in a turn, the aileron deflection causes the wings to make different amounts of lift and drag. The rising wing will make more drag than the descending wing; this causes the nose to “yaw” towards the high wing in a turn. This yawing is called “adverse yaw” because it acts in the direction against the way the pilot is trying to turn.

19 Adverse Yaw In a turn to the right, the controls deflect as shown, this results in more lift, but also more drag on the rising (left) wing. Even though the airplane will turn to the right, it will yaw slightly to the left.

20 Controlling Adverse Yaw
The rudder is used to compensate for adverse yaw. Applying a slight amount of rudder in the direction of the turn will eliminate adverse yaw and the airplane will turn more smoothly. When the adverse yaw is correctly compensated for, the airplane is making a “coordinated turn,” meaning the ailerons and rudder are properly balanced with each other.

21 Coordinated Turn Too much rudder Perfect! Not enough rudder
In a coordinated turn, the “ball” will be centered and you will not feel any sideways forces. A coordinated turn is smoother and more aerodynamically efficient. Remember: Step on the ball

22 Feeling the Turn You will learn how to “feel” the quality of your turns. To feel the turn, you must have proper posture. Don’t “lean” towards the top of turns, sit upright relative to the airplane.

23 Making Turns When an airplane turns, it will tend to lower its nose slightly because the amount of lift opposing weight decreases. Some of the lift acts in the direction of the bank, causing the airplane to turn. The total amount of lift needs to be increased to maintain altitude.

24 Components of Lift

25 Review Questions Match the control with the aircraft axis:
Roll Elevator Pitch Rudder Yaw Aileron Which controls keep the airplane “coordinated?” Define the term “attitude.” Write down your answers before continuing to next slide

26 Review Answers Match the control with the aircraft axis: Roll Elevator
Pitch Rudder Yaw Aileron Which controls keep the airplane “coordinated?” Aileron and Rudder Define the term “attitude.” The position of the aircraft’s nose and wings relative to the horizon. Review any missed questions before continuing to today’s flight.

27 On Today’s Flight We’ll learn and practice the basic flight maneuvers, including straight and level and making turns. We’ll practice keeping the airplane “coordinated.” Keep looking for other aircraft, collision avoidance is everyone’s responsibility. Thanks to Mid Island Air Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)

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