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Chapter 3 Thirteen Colonies: England’s North American Empire 1620–1732.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Thirteen Colonies: England’s North American Empire 1620–1732."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Thirteen Colonies: England’s North American Empire 1620–1732

2 The New England Colonies 1608 Pilgrims or Separatists moved to Leiden, Holland William Bradford leader Pilgrims dislike Dutch values Were English at heart Became part of Plymouth Company Promised freedom from persecution The Mayflower and the Speedwell 1620 Establish Plymouth Plantation on site of deserted native village Half died in first winter Squanto Learned native fishing and cultivation methods

3 Self Government Mayflower Compact Civil Body Politik Most males could vote but on Separatists William Bradford governor for 30 years Colony survived from fishing and fur trade Mostly subsistence farming Settlers bought out Plymouth Company Absorbed into Massachusetts in 1691

4 Massachusetts Started by Puritans in 1630 Well organized and funded Great Migration Includes cross-section of English society Equal numbers of men and women Want to create godly commonwealth = New England Abhorred Church of England Massachusetts Bay Company charter gives them right to self-government

5 Puritan beliefs Calvinists; humans inherently sinful God’s “Elect” or Saints: chosen for salvation “Elect” form covenant with God “Elect” must enforce God’s law in community Out of dissatisfaction with Church of England On an errand in the wilderness Believed England was flaunting God’s laws and would be punished Puritans to set an example of how to keep God’s covenant John Winthrop Strong sense of community Strict code of moral and social behavior Intolerant of individualism Disciplined members

6 Blue Laws Statutes of Massachusetts Regulated Sunday activity (Blue Laws) Used corporal punishment Dunking, stocks Mandatory church attendance Capital punishment rarely used Blasphemy, witchcraft, treason, rape, murder, etc

7 Assumptions Monarchy was sacred and democracy was abhorrent Strict discipline for children Social and economic distinctions part of God’s will Carefully planned communities Home sites were assigned Church and school in each community Most literate society in world Harvard established 1636

8 Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire Roger Williams Came to disagree with Puritan ministers No one can know if others are “Elect” Separation of church and state Remove religious qualifications for voting This threatened Puritan control of Massachusetts Questions Puritan legal right to land Indians owned by right of occupation

9 Rhode Island: “The Sewer of New England” Puritan authorities banish Williams Fled, lived with Narragansett Tribe Founded Providence and attracted followers Returned to England in 1644 Won charter for new colony Williams founded Rhode Island Home for dissenters; “sewer of New England”

10 Anne Hutchinson Criticized for speaking out as a woman Antinomian heresy Believed Holy Spirit inspired some to speak out Antinomianism = believed some people specially blessed and thus above the laws Banished to Rhode Island in 1638 with some of her followers

11 New Hampshire, Maine and Connecticut New Hampshire and Maine originally given to two men who could sell land for profit but never really grew New Hampshire made royal colony in 1680 John Wheelwright Maine District became part of Massachusetts in 1677 John Usher purchased and gave to Massachusetts Thomas Hooker starts Connecticut Hartford founded in 1636 Expansion leads to war with Pequot in 1637 Multi-colony army, with natives help, decimated Pequots New Haven founded during war

12 Propriety Colonies Corporate colony Charters as constitutions King sovereign, but self-governing commonwealths Leaders elected by male members of Congregationalist church Examples: Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island Royal Governed by King, thorough governor Elected Assemblies Example : Virginia Proprietary Power placed in hands high placed persons Lord proprietors appointed governor Example: New Hampshire and Maryland

13 Maryland – Making Money Maryland started by George Calvert, Lord Baltimore Hoped it would be a refuge for Catholics Hoped to make money through feudal means Gave out land through head-right system Paid proprietor a quitrent Not exactly a tax but left from feudal times Colonial quitrents small For proprietor colony payments added up

14 New Netherlands becomes New York New Netherland founded by Dutch in 1646 Dutch West India Company Peter Stuyvesant Colony had diverse population Four British warships called for surrender of New Amsterdam in 1664 Generous terms New Netherland became New York without a shot fired

15 A Successful Transition New York was Duke of York’s proprietary colony until 1685 when became King James II then royal Most Dutch stayed and more arrived 1689 James dethroned Jacob Leisler tries to seize New York But were arrested William and Mary restored tolerance

16 The Carolina Grant Charles II granted to 8 gentlemen and nobles Charleston first major settlement Most early settlers from Barbados Brought slavery and sugar Early economy was diverse Demand for slaves grew Brought the main crop = rice Northern Carolina Small farmers, mostly tobacco Democratic spirit Southern Carolina Dependent on plantation system Staple crops Rice Aristocratic and urban Did not live on rice plantations because of disease

17 New Jersey and the Quakers Duke of York gave southern Dutch lands in 1665 to John Berkeley and George Carteret Society of Friends (Quakers) Believed in pacifism Challenged civil authority Guided by “inner light” so no earthly authority Believed in equality Allowed women to preach Grew rapidly in North America

18 Pennsylvania: “The Holy Experiment” William Penn Colony chartered out of royal debt Named after his father “Penn’s woods” Pennsylvania Paid Indians for land Haven for Quakers Many German immigrants Philadelphia: well planned, largest city in America Delaware Created out of three lower counties in 1701

19 Georgia: A philanthropic experiment James Oglethorpe Becomes buffer between South Carolina and Florida Governed by council in England originally Tried to help debtors Banned slavery and alcohol Experiment failed as others rush in Becomes royal colony in 1752

20 Discussion Questions What caused the Pilgrims to come to North America? Was their colony successful? What role did religion play in the development of Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island? Who was Anne Hutchinson? What was her crime and what does it say about colonial gender roles? What was the “Society of Friends”? What role did it play in the development of the Pennsylvania? Compare and contrast company, royal and proprietorship colonies.

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