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Sovereignty, Authority & Power

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1 Sovereignty, Authority & Power
Review session # 2 Sovereignty, Authority & Power

2 What is the difference between State, Nation, Country
What is the difference between State, Nation, Country? What is the difference between governments and regimes?


4 DEMOCRACIES What are the indicators of a democracy?
Free and Fair Elections Competitive elections that allow opposition parties to form and participate Government-developed polices based upon procedures that guarantee due process, transparency in decision-making, and accountability of elected officials Political rights and civil rights that are possessed by all citizens An independent judiciary that upholds the civil liberties of citizens and oversees the rule of law Elected government officials who exercise supreme authority over the government (civilian authority exists over the military & private powerholders) Agreement that conflicts will be resolved peacefully according to legal procedures and without violence (rule of law)

Relative consistent adherence to the 7 principles over an extended period of time Examples: Great Britain, France, Germany, India, Japan and the United States LIBERAL OR SUBSTANTIVE Meets the 7 criteria – it is set up to be a democracy and functions as one Also known as a functioning democracy Not necessarily consolidated – depending mostly on length of time it has been engaged in truly democratic processes Example: Mexico ILLIBERAL OR PROCEDURAL Electoral process (but may be abused to keep someone in power) Only basic structures and institutions of democracy are in place May have regular, free, and fairly competitive elections but limit other qualities found in democratic regimes such as civil liberties, rule of law, independent judiciary or civilian control of the military Russia under Vladimir Putin is often cited as a prime example

6 authoritarianism What are the characteristics of an authoritarian regime? Rule by single leader (e.g. dictator or monarch), small group or a single political party Citizens have little or no input into selection of leaders and government decisions Limitations placed upon political opposition and dissident groups No constitutional responsibility of leaders to the public – very low transparency Restriction of civil rights and civil liberties Some based on communism, others may practices corporatism and have large patron-client systems Which of the AP 6 would you place here? Nigeria – military authoritarianism Iran – Theocratic grip China Russia Mexico under PRI rule

7 totalitarianism How would you differentiate between authoritarianism and totalitarianism? Particularly repressive, often detested regime – seeks to control nearly every aspect of life Strong ideological goals Single mass political party Usually a single leader that has a monopoly on political power Examples Nazi Germany, Soviet Union under Stalin and China under Mao’s rule

8 semi-authoritarian/semidemocracy (hybrid regime)
Elements of democracy are integrated into otherwise authoritarian regime Political authorities likely to engage in corruption, control of the media & Use illegal means to undermine political opposition TRANSITIONAL DEMOCRACIES Who in the AP 6? Russian, Nigeria & Mexico

9 Military regimes How are military regimes established and what are their characteristics? Usually begins with a coup d’etat – a forced takeover of the government May or may not have widespread support of the people Once in control restrict civil liberties Keep political parties from forming and prevent elections Usually lacks a specific ideology Leaders often have no charismatic or traditional source of authority Join forces with the bureaucracy to form authoritarian regime May precede democracy (S. Korea & Taiwan) or it may create instability as one coup d’etat follows another How has the military been involved in the 6 AP countries? Nigeria, Mexico, Iran, Russia, China -

10 legitimacy

11 Power & Authority WHAT IS LEGITIMACY?
2 Types of Power: Coercive: Get what you want through rewards and punishments Noncoercive: Results from a sense of legitimacy – power relies on consent not coercion In Comparative politics – Power based on legitimacy is called AUTHORITY… WHAT IS LEGITIMACY? Right to rule as determined by the citizens Those obeying commands believe that people who are making the rules have the right to command

12 What are the 3 basic types of legitimacy?

Legitimacy rests on the fact that it has “always been that way” – Accepted because it has been accepted over long period of time Power of leaders on family’s claim to throne and/or the belief that God has granted the leader the right to rule Incorporates the idea of the “divine right of kings” Rituals and ceremonies all help to reinforce this

14 Examples of traditional legitimacy

Legitimacy is based on the power of ideas Typically embodied in one individual who can move move the public through these ideas & the manner they are presented Not institutionalized… usually dies off with individual Can sometimes get transformed into traditional legitimacy w/ the creation of rituals and values that are meant to capture the spirit and intent of the charismatic leader’s power Example? Mao Ayatollah Khomeini

16 Charismatic Authority taken to the extreme?
Cult of Personality Hero –worship, extreme loyalty, propped up by media, propaganda Promotion of the image of a leader not merely as a political figure – but as someone who embodies the spirit of the nation, possesses wisdom and strength far beyond the average individual & is thus portrayed in a quasi-religious manner Attempts to generate charismatic form of authority from the top-down Media & Culture play a vital role Successes are attributed to power of the leader Mistakes are blamed on mortal flaws of the public or external enemies May function through terror – public may not believe praise, but no one is willing to say so especially if it has faded and is only being held up by force Mao – Great Leap Forward when the grain production was not what it appeared Possibly – Putin w/ theme song, consolidation of power and apparent killings of journalists, etc.

17 Rational-legal legitimacy
Based on system of laws and procedures that are highly institutionalized Leaders or political officials – legitimate because of rules followed to put them in office People follow decisions because they believe that the rules enforced serve the public’s best interests The person is not as important as the office he or she holds – OFFICE is legitimate Lasts beyond the individual person- people obey the rules – not their individual personality 2000 Election prime example of Rational-legal Legitimacy Weeks of bitter dispute…but after decision was made accepted that GW Bush was president whether they voted for him or not

18 Rational-legal legitimacy
Constitutions When were the constitutions of each of the AP 6 established?Comparison Chart - Crawford's World Common Law or Code Law Common Law: Based on tradition, past practices, legal precedents set by the courts through interpretation of statutes, legal legislation & past rulings E.g. Plessy v Ferguson was law until overturned by Brown v. Board of Education Code Law Based on comprehensive system of written rules (codes) – divided into commercial, civil and criminal codes What systems do the AP 6 use? Common: Great Britain, Nigeria*, Iran* Code: China, Mexico & Nigeria

19 Another Form of Rational legitimacy
Authoritarian & totalitarian regimes often claim they are “scientific” or “technocratic” (meaning rule by expertise) & they alone possess the knowledge and skills to guide the country Implies that democracy is emotional, inefficient and inferior means of rule Does this sound familiar? Lenin – Vanguard Party Current CCP justification for being in power Power play between the politicos and tecnicos in Mexico

20 What factors encourage legitimacy in both democratic & authoritarian regimes?
Economic well-being – credit government w/ economic prosperity – blame for economic hardships Historical tradition/longevity Charismatic leadership – matters even in democracies Nationalism/Shared Political Culture – Strong identity w/ nation, not just state – more accepting of legitimacy of gov’t Satisfaction w/ government’s performance/responsiveness If citizens receive benefits from government Country wins war Citizens are protected from violence & crime

21 Legitimacy of AP 6: Great britain
Traditional until end of 17th century “Constitution of the Crown” Magna Carta – nobles would be consulted before monarch made important decisions especially regarding taxes Bill of Rights – Rights for parliament (NOT CITIZENS!) – gave important policymaking power to Parliament Common Law – Legal system based on precedent

22 Legitimacy of ap 6: great britain
How have economic factors played a role in Great Britain’s legitimacy? Industrial Revolution & Colonial Mercantilism Colonialism – forces of nationalism & industrialization “The sun never sets on the British empire” World Power diminished by 2 World Wars What kind of benefits do the citizens receive from the government? Collective Consensus during WWII & continued well into 1960’s– both Labour & Conservative Parties supported modern welfare system (Prior to end of WWII) Beveridge Report – Social Insurance Program - all citizens eligible for health, unemployment, pension & other benefits – Goal was a subsistence income for every citizen 1948 National Health Service Created by Labour Party Thatcherism (neoliberalism)…Austerity Measures under Cameron

23 Legitimacy of ap 6: great britain
Other aspects of political culture: Noblesse oblige Duty of upper classes to take responsibility for lower classes Multi-Nationalism Relative cultural homogeneity – but united under one government

24 Legitimacy of ap 6 Russia
Historically on strong authoritarian rule by Tsars & then dictators Under communist rule – democratic centralism (rule by few for benefit of many) Constitution of 1993, Referendum by People to endorse constitution (Yeltsin) Tested by attempted coup & intense conflict between Yeltsin and Duma 2000 Presidential transition showed resilience Putin stepping down from President lends legitimacy What will happen in 2012? Economic Issues and Legitimacy… Tacit Social Contract under Stalin – You pretend to pay us…we’ll pretend to work… Shock therapy – 30,000 rubles to equal a dollar Economy strengthened until 2008…and then the global economic crisis hit Stock market dropped 70% Rescue Plan of over $200 billion for financial sector Tax cut plan for $ 20 billion of rcitizens Ruble still fell in value, unemployment grew & production dropped…disillusionment

25 Legitimacy of ap 6: russia
History of centralized rule w/ tsars Eastern Orthodoxy and link to the government – tsar was the head of the church Return to Eastern Orthodoxy since fall of USSR

26 Legitimacy of AP 6 China Dynastic rule – “mandate of heaven”
Revolution of 1911 – legitimacy was supposed to be based on democracy 1949 – Communist Party and Mao came to power Democratic Centralism Mass Line Since Mao’s death Politburo & CCP remain legitimate source of power – but criticism in recent years has become louder CCP maintains that they are the only party who have the well-being of the citizens in mind…historic best interests

27 Legitimacy of ap 6 China Economic basis for legitimacy
Measured in terms of PPP – 2nd largest economy next to United States Economic growth over egalitarianism as a support for legitimacy Stronger legitimacy in Urban areas than Rural Iron Rice Bowl Broken to increase incentive to work Public Health System once model for 3rd World - now in shambles Less than 10% of those who live in rural areas have health insurance WHO – ranks China among the worst countries in terms of allocation of medical resources PLA – important source of power for the PRC Old Guards that Marched w/ Mao – became PLA – never contested for power but became some of the powerful elite Head of Central Military Commission plays important role in policymaking (Deng-Xiaoping’s highest role) Old Guard became the PLA

28 Legitimacy of AP 6 Mexico Revolution of 1910 – 1911
Admiration for revolutionary leaders such as Michael Hidalgo, Benito Juarez, Emilio Zapata, Pancho Villa & Lazaro Cardenas Revolutions accepted as path to change & charisma is highly valued as leadership characteristic Formation of Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1929 Constitution produced during this time 2000 lost presidency & one house of Congress – but in 2009 captured a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies Sources of public authority & political power appear to be changing rapidly

29 Legitimacy of ap 6 Sense of National Identity

30 Legitimacy of ap 6 Iran Authoritarianism under the Pahlavi shahs (King of Kings) Charismatic leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini Revolution of 1979 Constitution of 1979 40 amendments written during last years of Khomeini’s life Anchored in Shiism Jurist’s Guardianship Recent years crisis of legitimacy in Iran Sovereignty of the people vs. Divinely Inspired Clerical Rule (The whole tension between democratic and theocratic rule) Khatami – – Reformers who support democratic rule Ahmedinejad 2005 – Present – Conservatives who support theocracy

31 Legitimacy of ap 6 Nigeria Legitimacy is at a low ebb
Lack of constitutionalism Strong impulses toward fragmentation Tendency to fall apart along ethnic, regional and religious lines Economic exploitation by the elite Corruption especially evident in General Ibrahim Babangida & General Sani Abacha Why should we pay taxes when it goes right to them? Use of Military Force Irony is that the military is one of the few truly national organizations in Nigeria….so despite problems also gives stability This stability lends legitimacy to Military’s right to rule Sharia In the north

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