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Nigeria – Historical Foundations

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1 Nigeria – Historical Foundations

2 Federalist Structure (Muslim North, Christian South) 36 States

3 The Nigerian Nation at a Glance

4 2. Per Capita GDP Rankings
United States ($37,800) United Kingdom ($27,700) Mexico ($9,000) Russia ($8,900) Iran ($7,000) China ($5,000) Nigeria ($800)

5 The Making of the Modern Nigerian State (1 of 2)

6 The Making of the Modern Nigerian State (2 of 2)

7 Former Head of State: President Umaru Yar’Adua

8 Current Head of State: President Goodluck Jonathan

9 Former Head of Government: President Umaru Yar’Adua

10 Current Head of Government: President Goodluck Jonathan

11 Politics in Action (2 of 2)

12 Legitimacy Nigeria is a relatively young country, achieving independence in 1960, this makes establishing legitimate government more difficult Fragmentation – tendency in developing countries to fall apart along ethnic, regional, and/or religious lines Nigeria is diverse religiously, ethnically, linguistically Corruption – Much of the oil money coming into the country goes directly to government officials, not to the people Patron-client relationships very important (prebendalism)

13 Constitutionalism Nine constitutions drafted since 1914 Five under colonial rule and four since Military and civilian leaders have felt free to disobey and suspend constitutional principles or change constitutions not to their liking

14 Colonial Era Britain’s imposition of a federal structure on Nigeria grouped together many different historically antagonistic ethnic groups Aggravated tensions when regional boundaries coincided with ethnic divisions Over 250 distinct ethnic groups

15 Divisive Identities: Ethnic Politics Under Colonialism

16 Colonial Era Christianity – British introduction of Christianity created a divide between Christian and Muslim areas Islam (Sharia law) dominant in the north, Christianity in the south Intensification of Ethnic Politics – emergence of three dominant groups: Hausa-Fulani (north), Yoruba (southwest), Igbo (southeast) These cleavages generally coincide with geographic cleavages (reinforcing) British pitted groups against each other to maintain control

17 Independence Era The 1st Republic (1960-1966)
British Westminster model Biafran Civil War and Military Rule ( ) Ethnic + political violence The 2nd and 3rd Republics ( ) Presidential system, FPTP, plurality elections Alternating military, civilian rule (coups) The 4th Republic (1999 to Present) 2007 – First peaceful turnover of power between civilian presidents after elections PDP now dominant political party

18 Independence Era (1960-Present)
Parliamentary vs. Presidential System – Nigeria operated under parliamentary system from Ethnic divisions made parliamentary system difficult So switched to presidential system with separate legislature and independent judiciary But neither has been able to check the power of the president Intensification of Ethnic Conflict – After independence, Hausa-Fulani (Muslims in North) dominated parliament because of large population

19 Independence Era continued
Military Rule A series of coups d’état and rule by military leaders during the past 50+ years Democratization efforts interrupted by military intervention Economic dependence on Oil This has led to corruption and has caused great harm to the environment and low levels of legitimacy for govt. Because of corruption, most Nigerians have not benefited from oil wealth Government-dominated economy Collapse of world oil prices in early 1980s caused a crisis for the government because nearly all its income was dependent on oil (rentier state)

20 Rentier State

21 Structural Adjustment / Privatization
Developed structural adjustment program (SAP) with support of international financial institutions (IMF, World Bank) Privatization central to adjustment program Some parastatals sold off Intended to generate revenue, reduce state expenditures, improve efficiency Disappointing results

22 Economic Growth

23 Dependency Theory

24 Growing Inequality

25 Steps Toward Democratization
New constitution eliminating military rule Freer press Regular elections since 1999 Protections for ethnic and religious groups. Redrawing of state boundaries to increase representation + more states created Direct election of president Electoral support required from different subnational regions Creation of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC)

26 Nigeria in the World of States
Nigeria has military and economic power in West African region Nigeria has significantly increased its importance as a regional power through its leadership in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Nigeria forced to seek support from international financial institutions (IMF, World Bank) Forced to accept direction from foreign agencies Influential member of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

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