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States Countries that control what happens within their borders Define who can and cannot use weapons and force It sets rules as to how violence is used.

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Presentation on theme: "States Countries that control what happens within their borders Define who can and cannot use weapons and force It sets rules as to how violence is used."— Presentation transcript:


2 States Countries that control what happens within their borders Define who can and cannot use weapons and force It sets rules as to how violence is used Sponsor armies, navies, air forces (legitimately use power and sometimes violence

3 Institutions Stable, long lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policies Bureaucracies Legislatures Judicial systems Political parties

4 Sovereignty The ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders independently from interference either from the inside or the outside Unable to exercise sovereignty = lacks autonomy –May be exploited by leaders/organizations that see the state as a resource for their own means

5 Nation and Nationalism A group of people that are bound together by a common political identity. Sense of belonging and identity that distinguishes one nation from another –Patriotism, pride and loyalty that individuals feel towards their nations

6 Indirect democracies Elected officials representing the people Large populations make is almost impossible for individuals to have a great deal of direct influence on how they are governed

7 Direct Democracies Individuals have immediate say over many decisions that the government makes Smaller governments Very few

8 Parliamentary Systems Citizens vote for legislative representatives Representatives select the leaders of the executive branch Great Britain

9 Parliamentary Sovereignty Legislature makes the laws controls finances appoints and dismisses the prime minister and the cabinet debates public issues

10 Presidential System Citizens vote for legislative representatives as well as for executive branch leaders Two branches function with seperation of powers Regulate/control the economy –Businesses, corporations, and/or companies generally operate independently from the government

11 Checks and Balances Balance between the legislative and executive (and sometimes judicial) branches Creates a Separation of powers –Ensures that power is shared and that one branch does not come to dominate the others –Power is diffused and the policy making processes is sometimes slowed down because one branch may question decisions that another branch makes

12 Semi-Presidential systems Where a prime minister coexists with a president who is directly elected by the people and who holds a significant degree of power Russia

13 Authoritarian Regimes Decisions are made by political elites Without input for citizens Ruled by a –Single dictator –Hereditary monarch –Small group of aristocrats –Single political party

14 Communism Government controls everything from the economy to the social life. Theory developed in the 19 th century by Karl Marx Altered in 20 th century by Lenin

15 State-corporatism An arrangement from the government officials interact with people/groups leaders before they set policy

16 Patron-client systems Clientelism Powerful patron offers resources (i.e. land, contracts, protection, or jobs) in return for support and services. Lower status: corruption, preferential treatment, inequality

17 Totalitarianism More negative connotations than authoritarianism Repressive regime Seek to control and transform all aspects of the political and economic systems of the society Strong ideological goal May use violence

18 Military Rule Where legitimacy and stability are in question May intervene directly in politics as the organization that can solve the problem May or may not have widespread support Restrict civil rights and liberties Keep political parties from forming

19 Coup d’etat A forced take over of the government Usually by the military

20 Corporatism Method used by business, labor, and other interest groups bargain with the state over economic policy. Gives public limited influence Interest groups are funded by the state

21 State Corporatism Authoritarian regimes (makes it appear less like author.) Originally it was a way to control the public by creating or recognizing organizations to represent the interests of the public Eliminates any input from groups not sanctioned or created by the state i.e.: Mexico: one-party system

22 Co-optation The means a regimes uses to get support from citizens Use patron-clientelism – relies on individual patronage rather than organizations that serve a large group of people

23 Pluralism Power is split among many groups that compete for the chance to influence the government’s decision-making Citizens can express there needs to the government Then the government will react to the input

24 Democratic Pluralism v. Neo-corporatism Formation of interest groups is spontaneous Dialogue b/w interest groups and state are voluntary and groups remain autonomous Interest groups are institutionalized through recognition by the state Develop institutionalized and legally binding links with the state agencies Result = groups and individuals lose freedoms

25 Legitimacy Right to rule Determined by the citizens Secured by: social compacts, constitutions, ideologies 3 basic forms: Traditional, Charismatic, Rational-legal authority

26 Traditional Authority Belief that tradition should determine who should rule and how i.e.: if a ruling family had been in power for 100s of years, the current ruling members of that family are legitimate rulers b/c it has always been so Monarchies : symbolized through crowns, thrones, scepters, robes

27 Charismatic authority Based on the dynamic personality of an individual leader or a small group Set of qualities that make people want to follow a leader i.e.: Napoleon Bonaparte best and worst of c.a. Short-lived

28 Rational-legal authority Based on a system of well established laws and procedures Institutionalized/ anchored by strong institutions (executive, legislature, judiciaries) Believe in the rules Accept the concept of a continuous state that binds them together

29 Common Law Based on tradition, past practices, and legal precedents set by the courts through interpretations of statutes Legal legislation/ past rulings

30 Code Law Based on comprehensive system of written rules of law divided into commercial, civil, and criminal codes Found in European countries In CP: found in China, Mexico, and Russia

31 Factors that encourage Legitimacy: Economic Well-being Citizens tend to credit their government with economic prosperity Blame government for economic hardships Political legitimacy is reinforced by economic well-being

32 Government has been in place for a long time Citizens and other countries view it as legitimate Factors that encourage Legitimacy: Historical tradition/longevity

33 Authority is a powerful factor in establishing legitimacy no matter the type of government (democratic or totalitarian) Factors that encourage Legitimacy: Charismatic leadership

34 Citizens identify strongly with their nation, not just the state More accepting of the legitimacy of the government Factors that encourage Legitimacy: Nationalism/Shared political Culture

35 Chances are that the government is a legitimate one if the citizens receive benefits Gov’t wins wars Citizens are protected from violence and crime Factors that encourage Legitimacy: Satisfaction w/government’s performance/responsiveness

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