Presentation on theme: "Political and Economic Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1Political and Economic Systems Chapter 15Political and Economic Systems
2Politics, Power, and Authority Politics is the process by which power is distributed and decisions are made.Power is the capability of making others comply with one’s decisions.Authority is power that is regarded as legitimate by those over whom it is exercised.
3Weber: Types of Authority Legal-rational Authority - power in particular positions or offices, not in people.Traditional authority - the idea that things are as they always have been and should remain that way.Charismatic authority - a ruler’s ability to inspire passion and devotion among followers.
4Charismatic leadersMost likely to emerge during a period of crisis when followers:Perceive a leader as somehow supernatural.Blindly believe the leader’s statements.Unconditionally comply with the leader’s directives.Give the leader unqualified emotional commitment.
5StateThe institutionalized way of organizing power within territorial limits.
6Functions of the State Establish laws and norms Provide social control Ensure economic stabilitySet goalsProtect against outside threats
7Main Forms of Government AutocracyTotalitarianismDemocracySocialism
8Autocracy Loyalty and devotion of the people are required. Dissent and criticism of the government and the person in power are prohibited.The media may be controlled by the government, and terror may be used to prevent or suppress dissent.
9Elements of Totalitarianism A single political party controls the state apparatus.Terror intimidates the populace into conformity.The control of the media is in the hands of the state.
10Elements of Totalitarianism Control over the military is monopolized by those who control the political power of the totalitarian state.The government has control of the economy.An elaborate ideology provides instructions to citizens on how to conduct their daily lives.
11DemocracyA political system operating under the principles of constitutionalism, representative government, majority rule, civilian rule, and minority rights.Representative government The authority to govern is achieved through, and legitimized by, popular elections.
12Democracy Characteristics of ideal democratic societies: Open and culturally diverseDissent is not viewed as disloyaltyThere are two or more political partiesTerror and intimidation are not an overt part of the political scene
13QuestionWhich of the following is not a characteristic of democratic political systems?majority ruledirect government by the peoplecivilian ruleConstitutionalism
14Answer: BDirect government by the people is not a characteristic of democratic political systems.
15Representative Government Authority to govern is legitimized by popular elections.Conditions required for Representative government:Every qualified citizen has the legal right to run for and hold an office of government.Majority rule must be maintained.Minority rights must be protected
16CapitalismEconomic system based on private ownership of the means of production, and in which resource allocation depends largely on market forces.
17Capitalism Entitles people to pursue their own self-interests. The free market will determine what is produced and at what price.If people can profit from the production of a product, it will be produced.
18Adam Smith and Capitalism According to Smith, Capitalism has four features:Private propertyFreedom of choiceFreedom of competitionFreedom from government interference
19SocialismBased on idea that economic activity should be guided by needs rather than profit.Under an ideal socialist system there would be:Public ownership of production and propertyGovernment control of the economy without a profit motiveCentral planning
20Democratic SocialismState assumes ownership of strategic industries and services:airlines, railways, banks, media, medical services and colleges.Businesses can remain private as long as they are responsive to the common welfare.
21Democratic SocialismHigh taxes prevent excessive profits and the concentration of wealth.Population receives extensive benefits, such as free medical care, free college education, or subsidized housing.
22RebellionsAttempts to achieve rapid political change that is not possible within existing institutions.Rebellions typically do not call into question the legitimacy of power, but, rather, its uses. For example, Honduras last year…
23RevolutionsAttempts at rapidly and dramatically changing a society’s previously existing structure.
24Social Revolutions Two simultaneous and interrelated processes: Transformation of social stratification, brought about by upheaval in the lower class(es).Changes in the form of the state.Examples:French Revolution of the 1790sCuban Revolution of 1959
25The Two-Party SystemBesides the United States, only Australia, New Zealand, and Austria have two political parties.The other democracies have more than two major parties and provide proportional representation for different political views.
26The Two-Party SystemIn most European democracies, if a political party receives 12% of the vote, it is given 12% of the seats in the national legislature.This ensures minority parties are represented.
27QuestionIn politics today, do you generally consider yourself a Democrat or a Republican or what?DemocratRepublicanIndependentOther
28GSS National Data Age <30 30-49 50 and up Democrat 42.1% 45.9% 49% Independent22.217.612.7Republican35.736.538.3
29U.S. Voter Participation by Selected Characteristics, 2004 Percentage VotingSexMale56.3Female60.1RaceWhite65.8BlackAsian29.8Hispanic28
30U.S. Voter Participation by Selected Characteristics, 2004 Percentage VotingEducation AttainedFewer than 9 years23.6High-school graduate52.4College graduate72.6EmploymentUnemployed46.4Employed60
31African American and Hispanic Elected Officials, 1985–2001
32Women Holding Office within State Legislatures, 1975–2003
33Selected Characteristics of Members of Congress SenatorsRepresentativesSex (2002)Male86376Female1459Race (1995)White98369Black39Asian-Pacific Islander25Hispanic22
34American Values: 1960s and Today The 1960sTodayDo not trust government in Washington to do the right thing.23%66%Would like government to do more to help minorities.50%37%There should be no laws against blacks and whites being able to marry.36%87%
35American Values: 1960s and Today The 1960sTodayHomosexuals should have equal rights in terms of job opportunities.56%87%Would vote for a well-qualified atheist for president.18%44%