Presentation on theme: "STUDENT NOTES 3 INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS."— Presentation transcript:
STUDENT NOTES 3 INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS
When classifying governments, you can ask five questions to help you classify them: 1.Who can participate? 2.How is power distributed? 3.How are the legislative, executive, and judicial branches structured? 4.What is the relationship between the legislative and executive branch? 5.What type of electoral systems do they have?
II. Sovereignty, Authority, and Power 1.) Who can participate? ► The two classifications are authoritarian or democratic ► The fundamental difference between democracies and non-democracies is who has the power to choose and remove leaders. Leaders are subject to the people in a democracy.
DEMOCRATIZATION The transformation process by which a non- democratic state changes to a government that allows free and fair elections. This eventually leads to a greater protection of civil rights and liberties and greater political and economic competition
POLITICAL LIBERALIZATION The process of minimizing government interference/supervision of individuals and/or society Increasing the rights enjoyed by citizens A necessary part of democratization
LIBERAL DEMOCRACY SUBSTANTIVE DEMOCRACY A democracy with strong protections of civil rights and liberties, access to information, political competition and economic freedom
II. Sovereignty, Authority, and Power 1.) Who can participate? LIBERAL DEMOCRACY: limits the power of the government – Sustained and recurring national elections – Competitive political parties – Civilian control over the military – An independent judiciary – Usually a fairly high level of economic development
ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY PROCEDURAL DEMOCRACY A democracy without strong protections of civil rights and liberties, where the process may be censored and a low level of political competition and/or economic freedom
II. Sovereignty, Authority, and Power 1.) Who can participate? Illiberal democracies - appear like other established democracies but, procedurally, are not democratic. Elections are held without regard to civil liberties/rights/human rights or electoral competition. Large-scale disenfranchisement, probably on ethnic/racial grounds Access to the media is often restricted or freedom of the press is greatly curtailed. State institutions like the judiciary, the military, or state-run industries are under the direct control of government who, then, uses it to control political opposition. Small/weak civil society
II. Sovereignty, Authority, and Power 1.) Who can participate? Authoritarianism - political regime where a small group of individuals exercises power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public. Built upon the restriction of individual freedom. Driven by the whims of those in power. Totalitarianism - highly centralized regime that possesses some form of strong ideology that seeks to transform and absorb aspects of the state, society, and the economy. It seeks to use power to transform the total fabric of a nation, which distinguishes it from authoritarianism. Totalitarianism shatters human will, and destroys the ability of individuals to create or aspire to freedom.
Regimes can be grouped into three broad categories: – Liberal/Substantive democratic regimes – Liberal/Substantive democratic regimes—democratic political systems solidly and stably established for ample period of time with consistent adherence to core democratic principles. – Procedural/Illiberal democracies or Hybrid regimes – Procedural/Illiberal democracies or Hybrid regimes—countries that have moved from authoritarian government to a democratic one. While some democratic forms are present, the regime has yet to demonstrate consistent adherence to core democratic principles. – Authoritarian Regimes – Authoritarian Regimes—system of rule in which power depends not on popular legitimacy, but on the coercive force of political authorities. Authoritarian Characteristics: Elites who hold political power make decisions Some based on Communism Some based on Corporatism – Gov’t officials interact with people/groups outside gov’t before they set policy – Patron-Client Systems – Favors and services to their supporters Economy is tightly controlled by the political elite Citizens have little to no input on selection of leaders Restriction of civil liberties very common
CORPORATISM An authoritarian government system in which groups are given a monopoly in representing an interest. Creates limited public influence. Contrast with PLURALISM where MULTIPLE groups compete
CO-OPTATION Individuals outside of the govt are brought into a beneficial relationship, thereby tacitly supporting an authoritarian govt
Interest Group Strength: Autonomy From the State Less AutonomyMore Autonomy Interest Groups as “Transmission Belts” Corporatism Interest Group Pluralism No autonomy From the state State and interest group autonomy mixed Autonomy from the state
Theocracy A political system in which religious leaders control political decisions and religious law provides the basis for policy decisions. Examples?