2WHAT IS COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS? GOVERNMENT: leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for the country.POLITICS: All about power. Who gets it? How? What do they do with it?
3WHAT IS COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS? TOPICS for Each Country Under Consideration:The Comparative MethodSovereignty, Authority and PowerPolitical and Economic ChangeCitizens, Society and the StatePolitical InstitutionsPublic Policy
4TOPIC ONE: THE COMPARATIVE METHOD Scientific MethodTHREE WORLD APPROACH (PRE 1990)1ST – The United States and its Allies2nd – The Soviet Union and its Allies3rd – Economically underdeveloped and deprived. Did not fit into the other two categories.
5TOPIC ONE: THE COMPARATIVE METHOD Newer Types of Comparisons1. Impact of Informal PoliticsCivil Society – the way that citizens organize and define themselves and their interests.Informal politics – ways politicians behavior outside their formal powers as well as beliefs, values, and actions of ordinary citizens have on policymaking.
6TOPIC ONE: THE COMPARATIVE METHOD 2. Importance of Political ChangeThe nature of world politics has changed.Three World Approach not needed anymore.The Integration of Political and Economic Change- Linking of the political and economic systems. For Example: Communism and Capitalism.
7TOPIC ONE: THE COMPARATIVE METHOD Groups With Similar Political and Economic Institutions and Practices:ADVANCED DEMOCRACIES – Well established democratic governments and high level of economic development.Great BritainUnited States of AmericaEuropean Union Included in this discussion.
8TOPIC ONE: THE COMPARATIVE METHOD Communist and Post-Communist Countries – Limited individual freedom in order to divide wealth more equally.Russia – Post-Communist CountryChina – Communist Country
9TOPIC ONE: THE COMPARATIVE METHOD Less Developed and Newly Industrializing (or developing) Countries – “Third World”Some are experiencing rapid growth, tendency toward democratization and social/political stability. Examples are Mexico and Iran.Lesser Developed countries lack significant economic development and may have authoritarian governments. Example is Nigeria.
10TOPIC TWO: SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY, AND POWER States are countries that control what happens within their borders.Institutions are long lasting, stable organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy.Sovereignty is the ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders without interference.Nationalism – Sense of belonging to the nation that binds people together.
11Democracies Indirect vs. Direct Parliamentary vs. Presidential Parliamentary – citizens vote for legislative representatives who select the leaders of the executive branch. Head of GovernmentPresidential – citizens vote for legislative representatives and the executive branch who function within a system of separation of powers and checks and balances. Head of State and Head of Government.Semi-Presidential – Prime Minister coexists with a president elected by the power and has power. (example is Russia)
12Authoritarian Regimes Decisions made by political ELITES.Ruled by single dictator, hereditary monarch, small group of aristocrats, or single political party.State Corporatism – Government officials interact with people/groups outside of government before making decisions.Patron-Client System – Reciprocal favors and services to supporters.
13Authoritarian Regimes Characteristics of Authoritarian RegimesSmall group of elites with power over the state.Citizens with little or no input into the selection of leaders and decisions of government.No constitutional responsibility of leaders to the public.Restriction of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties
14Authoritarian Regimes Totalitarianism – Term used to describe a particularly detested regime with a strong ideological goal (communism).Military Regimes – Military intervention into politics in a country where letimacy is low and stability is in question.Lacks specific ideology with noncharasmatic leaders. May join forces with state bureaucracy to form an authoritarian regime.Not opposed to use of force COUP D’ETAT.
15CORPORATISMCORPORATISM – Method through which business, labor, and/ or other interest groups bargain with the state over economic policy.STATE CORPORATISM – Eliminates any input from groups not sanctioned or created by the state.PATRON-CLIENTELISM – system in which the state provides specific benefits or favors to a single person or group for their support.
16CORPORATISMPLURALISM – Power split among many groups with a chance to influence decisions.DEMOCRATIC CORPORATISMFormation of interest groups is spontaneous.Dialogue between interest groups and the state is voluntary.Develop institutionalized and legally binding links with the state becoming semi-public agencies limiting freedom of people.
17LEGITIMACY The right to rule; given by the people. Three Forms of Authority:1. Traditional Authority – Tradition should decide who will rule and how.2. Charismatic Authority – based on dynamic personality of a leader or small group.3. Rational-Legal Authority – Based on a system of well-established laws and procedures.Common Law – Tradition, past practices, legal precedent.Code Law – System of written rules of law divided into commercial, civil, and criminal codes.
18LEGITIMACYLegitimacy of leaders is based on FAIR, FREE, COMPETITIVE ELECTIONS.Factors that encourage legitimacy in both Authoritarian and Democratic Regimes:Economic Well-BeingHistorical Tradition/LongevityCharismatic LeadershipNationalism/Shared Political CultureSatisfaction with the Government’s Performance/Responsiveness
19POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES POLITICAL CULTURE – Collection of beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on.SOCIAL CAPITAL – A method to measure the Political Culture based on the amount of reciprocity and trust that exists among citizens and the state.
20POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES Types of Political CultureConsensual Political Culture – Acceptance of both the legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems although there may be disagreement on political processes and policies.Conflictual Political Culture – Citizens are sharply divided on legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems. Subcultures may develop. Effective rule may be subdued.
21POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES Political Ideologies – Sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of government and politics.1. Liberalism – Emphasis on individual political and economic freedom. (freedom for all, free speech, religion, and association). The right to disagree with the state and leaders. Action to change the decisions of leaders present.
22POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES Political Ideologies2. Communism – Values equality over Freedom. Result of the competition for scarce resources is that a small group will come to control the government and the economy. Private ownership of property is abolished.Individual liberties give way to the needs of society as a whole.
23POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES Political Ideologies3. Socialism – Shares the value of equality of Communism with the freedom of liberalism.Accept and promote private ownership & free market.State regulation of economy and benefits to public to ensure equality.
24POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES Political Ideologies4. Fascism – Devalues individual freedom.Rejects the value of equality.People and groups exist in degrees of inferiority and superiority.State has the right and responsibility to mold society and economy and to eliminate obstacles.Nazi Germany is example.
25POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES Political Ideologies5. Religions – Source of group identity.Separation of Church and State in advanced democracies.Source of interest group activity within the civil society.Varies in importance to governmental regimes in the world. (Iran = Theocracy).
26TOPIC THREE: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Comparative Political Scientists are interested in the impact that change has on the policymaking process.Political and economic changes occur together and influence one another. If one happens without the other, tensions and instability can occur with serious consequences.
27Three Types of Change1. Reform – does not advocate the overthrow of basic institutions. Reformers want to change some of the methods used to reach goals.2. Revolution – Basic level change that involves major revision or overthrow of existing institutions3. Coup d’etat – Replacement of the leader of a country. Use of force and assassination can happen.
28Attitudes Toward Change 1. Radicalism – Rapid, dramatic changes need to me made in society and/or political system. System cannot be saved and must be replaced (Bolsheviks).2. Liberalism – Gradual reform and change. Economic/Political system not broken but in need of gradual repair or improvement.
29Attitudes Toward Change 3. Conservatism – Less supportive of change. Change is seen as disruptive and can have unforseen outcomes. Change can be a threat to law and order.4. Reactionary – Find status quo unacceptable but generally similar to conservatives. Regress to an earlier era regarding political, social, and economic institution that once existed.
30Three Trends (Patterns) 1. Democratization – Requirement is competitive elections that are regular, free, and fair.Liberal Democracy CharacteristicsCivil LibertiesRule of LawNeutrality of the JudiciaryOpen Civil societyCivilian Control of the Military
31Three Trends (Patterns) 1. DemocratizationIlliberal democracies – Countries that have regular, free, and fair elections but lack elements listed in previous slide.Third Wave of Democratization – Samuel Huntington- Modern World is here.1st Wave – Post 18th Century Revolutions2nd Wave – Post WWII until 1960’s –De-colonization
32Three Trends (Patterns) 1. Democratization – CausesLoss of legitimacyExpansion of an urban Middle ClassEmphasis on Human RightsSnowball Effect (domino theory in reverse)*Political discontent is triggered if preceded by a period higher standard of living, a condition called “revolution of rising expectations.”
33Three Trends (Patterns) 2. Movement Toward Market EconomiesCommand Economies (socialist principles, state ownership) are fading from existence unless partnered with Market EconomiesMixed Economy – Market Economy that allows for control from the central government.
34Three Trends (Patterns) Movement Toward Market EconomiesTwo Factors precipitating movement toward market economies:Belief that Government is Too BigLack of success of command economies.**MARKETIZATION – state’s recreation of a market in which property, labor, goods and services can function in a competitive environment to determine value.Privatization – Transfer of state-owned property to private ownership.
35Three Trends (Patterns) 3. Revival of Ethnic or Cultural PoliticsFragmentation – divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity.Politicization of Religion has dominated world politics in the 21st century.Huntington argues a dangerous future will be based on clashes of civilizations, not socioeconomic or ideological differences.