1) Nation 2) State 3) Regime 4) Government 5) Sovereignty 6) Legitimacy 7) Political Culture
A nation is defined as a group with a common language, culture, history, and or religion, residing in a specific geographic territory Don’t confuse nation with country or state! Does every nation have its own country or state? NationCountry/State Japan KoreaSouth Korea, North Korea Palestine? TibetChina InuitCanada QuebecCanada BasqueSpain
A state is defined as political body which has a monopoly of force over a territory There are approximately 190 states in the world today. Many are nation-states such as Japan, South Korea, and Germany. Others, such as Canada, USA, Australia are NOT nation-states. Not every nation has its own state. States last longer than regimes or governments.
States which have full control over their territories Strong states are able to provide a wide array of government services (welfare, infrastructure, courts, etc.) Generally high income states Examples: USA, Canada, Japan, France
States which have a limited capacity to provide social services to its citizens Weak states may not be able to protect property rights Generally low income states Examples: Chad, Ethiopia, and a number of other African states
A state which is unable to maintain a monopoly of force over its entire territory cannot guarantee the security of its citizens. Afghanistan and Somalia are two such examples
A regime is defined as the practices, norms, institutions, and rules created to organize the state Regimes create the rules of the game: elections, constitution, rights, freedoms, etc. Regimes last longer than governments but a state may go through several regimes
Meiji Restoration (1868- 1912) Taisho Period (1912-1926) Showa Period (1926-1945) Constitutional Monarchy (1947- present) Imperial Modern Authoritarian Oligarchy Imperial Democratic Imperial Authoritarian Militaristic Democratic Parliamentary
Democracy Rule by the People Freedoms, civil liberties Examples Parliamentary: U.K., Canada, Japan Presidential: US, France, Mexico, Russia
Absolute Monarchy Rule by the King/Queen Authoritarian Limited freedoms Examples: Chinese Dynasties, France and England before their revolutions
Totalitarian Dictatorships Authoritarian One Man/ One Party Limited freedoms Attempts to transform society Examples: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, China under Mao, the Soviet Union, North Korea
Theocracy Rule by religion Authoritarian Totalitarian Examples: Iran, Afghanistan under the Taliban
A government is defined as the elites (elected or unelected) who run and operate the regime Governments come and go and are far less institutionalized than the regime or state Japanese Regime Constitutional Monarchy, 1947-present Governments Yasua Fukoda (Liberal Democratic Party), 2007- 2008 Taro Aso (Liberal Democratic Party), 2008-2009 Yukio Hatayama (Democratic Party) 2009-2010 Naoto Kan (Democratic Party), 2010- 2011 Yoshihiko Noda (Democratic Party) 2011- present
Sovereignty is defined as the ability of a state to exercise decisions internally (domestic) and externally (foreign) For example: States in the midst of civil war have limited internal sovereignty
State sovereignty can either be concentrated at the national level in a unitary state or distributed regionally in a federal state Unitary State: most states are unitary states the central or national government dominates decision making; provinces, or regions have limited power- examples: U.K., France, China, Japan Federal State: provinces/ regions have constitutionally protected powers which the central government cannot take away- examples: Germany, Canada, USA, Nigeria, Mexico, Russia
Membership in a supranational organization such as the European Union (EU) Civil war Military occupation by a foreign state Trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Economic pressure particularly from larger states Military alliances United Nations actions (resolutions, sanctions, interventions)
Legitimacy is defined as the people’s belief in the government’s right to rule
Traditional: people follow the rules because it has always been that way Example: Chinese dynasties Charismatic: people follow a leader because they have been mesmerized, persuaded- Example: Nazi Germany Rational-legal: people follow laws, rules and a constitution because they believe this system to be just and fair Examples: Japan, South Korea, Canada, USA
Anytime the government/regime uses coercion (violence) to put down protest Corruption War Economic misery/depression Failure to reform
In democratic states, citizens normally choose another party In authoritarian states, however, this normally leads to: rebellion, revolution, or coup d’etat
Political culture is defined as the prevailing attitudes people in a state have toward government and authority What rights and freedoms do citizens believe are important? Who should or should not have power?
American political culture: Values freedom and individual liberties Republican democracy Capitalist Christian traditions Chinese political culture: Respects authority Values the group/community Communist one party system Authoritarian history Mixed economy
Source: Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel, "Changing Mass Priorities: The Link Between Modernization and Democracy." Perspectives on Politics June 2010 (vol 8, No. 2) page 554. Mapping political culture States with the highest self-expression values tend to be the most individualistic. What else do these states have in common?
What is legitimate in one state might not be legitimate in another Much of this (but NOT all) has to do with political culture For example: in the U.K. there is support and respect for an unelected hereditary monarchy; there also tends to be more respect for unelected bureaucrats and government officials and a general belief that they will do what is best for the state In the USA, on the other hand, nearly every government office is elected, and politicians tend to be mistrusted; the general belief is that their power must be restricted and checked by the people