Presentation on theme: "Sovereignty, Power, and Authority AP Comparative Government Unit III Power is the ultimate aphrodisiac. HENRY KISSINGER The depositary of power is always."— Presentation transcript:
Sovereignty, Power, and Authority AP Comparative Government Unit III Power is the ultimate aphrodisiac. HENRY KISSINGER The depositary of power is always unpopular. BENJAMIN DISRAELI Power is not only what you have but what the enemy thinks you have. SAUL ALINSKY The greater the power, the more dangerous the abuse. EDMUND BURKE
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power In this unit students will study the meaning and sources of power defined by national borders, as well as by supranational systems such as the European Union, ASEAN, the African Union…
“My people and I have come to an agreement which satisfies us both. They are to say what they please, and I am to do what I please." -- Frederick the Great of Prussia
Political Culture Political culture refers to the collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on. For example, if a society values individualism, the government will generally reflect this value in the way that it is structured and in the way that it operates. If the government does not reflect basic political values of a people, it will have difficulty remaining viable.
The State The state is the structure within which the business of governing takes place. Finer identifies five characteristics of states. 1. Geographic borders within which the population accepts a common government. 2. Government is served by specialized personnel, civil to carry out its daily business and military to protect it from internal and external threats. 3. The government and population that constitute a state are recognized by other such entities as independent and sovereign within its borders. 4. Nationality 5. Community The fourth and fifth he feels are more modern in origin. Combined, they are that the population feels a sense of common nationality and community.
The Historical Evolution of Authority in the State The historical evolution of political traditions shape a country’s concept of who has the authority to rule and its definition of legitimate political power. This evolution may be gradual or forced, long or relatively brief, and the relative importance of tradition varies from country to country. A country’s political culture is an important factor in the way it views authority and power
The State Has Evolved While the state has always been with us, its form has evolved substantially. This evolution has revolved around the matter of authority to govern.
Four theories By Force By Evolution By Divine Right Through Social Contract Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu… How Do States Gain and Keep Control?
Power VS Authority Power is the ability to get someone to do something -- because that someone feels required to follow your directions, or because you're persuasive, or because you're holding a gun to his head. Authority is the RIGHT to use power, granted by a culture, custom, constitution, or law.
Power VS Authority This distinction is important because it is at the root of many serious political debates. Should the US invade Iraq? Clearly we had the POWER to do so, but did we have the authority?
Power VS Authority This distinction is important because it is at the root of many serious political debates. Should the US use extraordinary rendition to take detainees to third countries for interrogation? Clearly we have the POWER to do so, but do we have the authority?
Power VS Authority This distinction is important because it is at the root of many serious political debates. Should the US provide universal health care or control the salaries of corporate executives? Clearly we have the POWER to do so, but do we have the authority (via the Constitution)?
Who has political power? Who has the authority to rule? Different countries answer these questions in different ways, but they all answer them in one way or another. Countries that have no clear answers often suffer from lack of political legitimacy - or the right to rule, as determined by their own citizens Referred to as Illegitimate or illiberal
Legitimacy When people feel that their government is valid and they follow the laws based on some organization, their government is legitimate. Legitimacy is a give and take relationship between the government and the masses. Legitimacy is the foundation of establishing a political culture – the politicalization and socialization of the society. Political efficacy (the belief that you have the ability to impact government) is required for a government to be legitimate
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power We will also concentrate on how power is defined and used in different types of political regimes, and how political legitimacy is expressed. Ask yourself: What are the sources of authority, political power and governance in the U.S.? …. in our six core countries?
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power Ask yourself: What are the influences and impacts that history, political culture and socialization patterns have had on the political development of each core country both individually and comparatively??
How is Power Obtained? Legitimate Techniques ?? Illegitimate Techniques ??
How is Power Obtained? Legitimate Techniques Must have consent of the governed Democratic processes such as elections Monarchies, if people support royal rule Illegitimate Techniques Military coup Dictator take-over Election fraud
Government legitimacy comes from its sovereignty, authority, and power Factors influencing legitimacy include: The state’s history of leadership Supranational systems Religious or other social movements Economic considerations
How is Legitimate Power Obtained? Legitimacy may be secured in a number of ways, using sources such as 1. Social compacts 2. Constitutions 3. Ideologies
Legitimacy: Important Themes 1. What are the Sources of Public Authority and Political Power? 2. What was the key to Establishing a political culture? You should be aware of both of these in each of our 6 countries post revolution through today.
I love power. But it is as an artist that I love it. I love it as a musician loves his violin, to draw out its sounds and chords and harmonies. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
Democracies and Legitimacy The most common source of legitimacy today is the perception that a government is operating under democratic principles and is subject to the will of the people. Governments often claim a popular mandate to exercise power, however, how this mandate is derived can vary sharply from regime to regime. Liberal democratic states claim democratic legitimacy on the grounds that they have regular free and fair contested elections.
Democracies and Legitimacy A liberal democratic state may also gain legitimacy if the population believes that the following factors hold: Free and fair elections Accountability A rigid written constitution, or well-respected constitutional conventions Popular participation A strong and independent media A system of checks and balances Economic stability Political stability
Are Democracies ALWAYS Legitimate?? Democratic legitimacy is also claimed by states which reject liberal democracy, and the fact that states whose values are antithetical to liberal democracy claim democratic legitimacy causes much controversy over the meaning of the term democracy. Communist states often claim democratic legitimacy on the grounds that they won a popular revolution and are acting on behalf of the people in accordance with the scientific rules of Marxism. Nazism and Fascism also claim (ed) to represent the will of the people more directly and authentically than liberal democracy.
Constitutionalism and Legitimacy A related form of political legitimacy involves constitutionalism or the belief that an action is legitimate because it follows regular procedure. This form of legitimacy is related to democracy in that the justification of those constitutional procedures are agreed to be popular consent, but it may result in different outcomes, in that constitutional procedure often require supermajorities or are intended to protect minority groups.
Nationalism and Legitimacy Patriotism and nationalism can inspire loyalty to a state. This can take many forms. Democracy as described above is sometimes called civic nationalism. Other forms of nationalism that can be beneficial to a state include ethnic nationalism, where the state derives legitimacy from cultural or hereditary groups, religious nationalism, where the state derives legitimacy from a shared religion.
Communism and Legitimacy In principle, communist states attempt to acquire legitimacy through their fostering economic equality and economic growth. Food for thought However, many communist states in history moved back to totalitarian methods when they failed to achieve these goals.
Traditionalism and Legitimacy In monarchies, the king gained legitimacy through the popular perception that he was the rightful lord of the kingdom. This perception was often enhanced by propagating the belief that he was divinely ordained to hold his post. This form of legitimacy remains today in the form of absolute monarchy where the monarch still have effective power, and constitutional monarchy where traditional sources of legitimacy have been combined with democratic and constitutional sources of legitimacy.
Power is given only to those who dare to lower themselves and pick it up. Only one thing matters, one thing; to be able to dare! FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY
When is a Government considered Legitimate? 1. Ideology 2. Continuity 3. Familiarity 4. Standing traditions/common issues 5. Propaganda – Politicalization. 6. Strength of force
When is a Government considered Legitimate? 1. Ideology ► Community values and ideals are reflected
When is a Government considered Legitimate? 2. Continuity ► No other force to compete with the present system.
When is a Government considered Legitimate? 3. Familiarity ► The people inherited the current system. They know of no other way to be ruled.
When is a Government considered Legitimate? 4. Standing traditions/common issues ► Bond people together.
When is a Government considered Legitimate? 5. Propaganda – Politicalization. ► The government controls the sources of information through a controlled press or school system. ► All you see is what the government wants you to see. This impacts the socialization of the system.
When is a Government considered Legitimate? 6. Strength of force ► You follow me or you don’t follow anyone.
How does a Government Maintain Legitimacy? 1. Through Political Institutions and Organizations 2. Through Political Ideologies 3. By establishing Political Symbols 4. By unraveling political and social problems
How does a Government Maintain Legitimacy? 1. Through Political Institutions and Organizations ► Parties, Branches of Government
How does a Government Maintain Legitimacy? 2. Through Political Ideologies ► Communism, Socialism, Democracy…
How does a Government Maintain Legitimacy? 3. By establishing Political Symbols ► Flag, anthem…
How does a Government Maintain Legitimacy? 4. By unraveling political and social problems ► Work on solving important issues
How does a Government Maintain Legitimacy? These four examples come together to promote the political socialization of the state- And this establishes the political culture of one’s society... promoting legitimacy.
"The optimist proclaims that we live in the best of all possible worlds; and the pessimist fears this is true.“ -- Irving Caesar
Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely. LORD ACTON