2Unit 1 Vocabulary Government Public policy Democracy State Sovereignty (sovereign)U.S. ConstitutionPrecedentWrit of Habeas CorpusSocial Contract TheoryRepresentative democracyDirect democracyRepublicLimited government
3What is government?“the institution through which a society makes and enforces public policies”
4What is public policy?Polices, or actions that the government chooses to do.Examples: taxation, education, health care, national defense, civil rights.
5What is a state?“a body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and has the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority.”Think of this as a “political state”
6Characteristics of a state: what must a state have to function? PopulationTerritorySovereigntyGovernment
7Characteristics of The State PopulationA state must have peopleSmallest state San Marino 27,000TerritoryMust have recognized boundariesLargest Russia 6.6 Million Square MilesSmallest San Marino 24 Square MilesUnited States is about half the size of Russia
8Characteristics of The State 3. SovereigntyThe state has supreme in absolute POWER within its own territoryThe state can decide its own foreign and domestic policiesWho holds the power? A person or the people?4. Government –Every state is politically organizedGovernment consist of the machinery and personnel by which the state is ruledGovernment takes many formsSovereignty is the one characteristic that distinguishes the state from all lesser political units. Consequently the Virgin islands in Guam are not sovereign but are territorial possessions in the United States.Government is the Institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies. It is the agency through which the state inserts it’s well it works to accomplish its goalsUnited States has 300 million people and 38,000,000 mi.²Are individual states with the United States sovereign?
10Theory: A proposed explanation or hypothesis designed to account for any phenomenon. Something that has not been proven.
11Theories on How Government Developed: The Force TheoryGovernment developed b/c someone forced others to obey their rulesEvolutionary TheoryGovernment developed out of the family structureDivine Right TheoryGovernment leaders get their power from a higher beingSocial Contract Theory…
12The Social Contract Theory State developed voluntarily. People created government therefore government serves the people. People can change the government.Hobbes, Locke, and MontesquieuPopular sovereigntyLimited governmentIndividual rightsBranches of government
13So…what does this have to do with OUR government? Does anyone want to guess which of the theories defines the United States government?Social Contract Theory
14Representative Democracy Democracy= government that is run by the peopleA representative democracy is one where public policies are made by officials who are selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections.The United States has a representative democracy
15Direct DemocracyA government in which the sovereignty is given to ALL people that choose to participate in the governmentIt is difficult to find a government with a direct democracy today; the best example of a direct democracy were the colonial governments in New England (during America’s colonial period)Why can’t the United States have a direct democracy today?
16Republica state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.FromA republic is almost synonymous with representative democracy
17What is the Purpose of our Government? A solid answer is found in the preamble of our constitution……To Form a More Perfect UnionTo Establish JusticeTo Insure Domestic TranquilityTo Provide For a Common DefenseTo Promote the General WelfareTo Secure the Blessings of Liberty
24Forms of Government2 major indicators that describe the form of government in a stateParticipationDistribution of power
25ParticipationTo know what form of government a state has, ask yourself: who can participate?DemocracyPolitical authority rests with the peopleWho has sovereignty?Direct and Indirect democracyIs a representative democracy direct or indirect?
26ParticipationTo know what form of government a state has, ask yourself: who can participate?Dictatorship- absolute powerAutocracy: a single person has unlimited powerOligarchy: power is held by a small group of people
27Distribution of PowerQuestion asked: where is the power to govern located?Unitary government: power belongs mainly in the central government (rather than local government agencies)Local governments only have powers that are given to them by the central government- main purpose is to relieve the central government of all of its responsibilitiesThere is a DIFFERENCE between a unitary government and a dictatorship. In a unitary government, the government’s power can still be limited (meaning there are certain things that the government cannot do).A government can be unitary AND democratic
28Distribution of PowerQuestion asked: where is the power to govern located?Federal Government- powers of government are divided between a central government and local governmentsResponsibilities are sometimes shared, but they are also divided between different LEVELS of governmentExample: The United StatesNo Child Left Behind: National government legislationIt is the state’s responsibility to create and control their state’s education system. The Law, NCLB, gave guidelines to the states (a national government power), but the responsibility ultimately lies with the states. You take Georgia state tests, not national tests
29Distribution of PowerQuestion asked: where is the power to govern located?Confederation- government power resides with local government agencies (like states in the United States)The central government ONLY has the power to do what the states assign it to doI.e. defense (military)The national government is NOT strong, and the governing authority that has the most control is the state governmentStates are loosely bound together by the central authorityExample: European Union- The EU has some authority over its states (European countries). For example, it created a currency that is shared amongst all of the European countries, the Euro
31Characteristics of Democracy There are four main principles that describe a democracy… If a government meets these requirements, then it is a democracyIndividual LibertyMajority Rule with Minority RightFree ElectionsCompeting Political Parties
32Individual Liberty People are FREE People have rights Equal Opportunity
33Majority Rule with Minority Rights Decisions based on the will of the majorityConsideration of the minority groups
34Free ElectionsPeople elect representatives- giving them their consent to govern over themThere is a choiceOne person, one voteCandidates express their views freelyCitizens can take part in campaigns
35Competing Political Parties Political party: group of individuals with broad common interests who organize and support candidates for office; develop specific ideologies that tie them togetherRival parties make elections meaningful