2 Sovereignty- ultimate, supreme power in a state. Legitimacy- right and proper authority of governmentTotalitarian-form of government with absolute control over everything.
3 Anarchy-a state of lawlessness Oligarchy-rule by a few small groups of people, usually military or economic eliteMonarchy-form of government exercised by a single ruler, such as king or queen, who claims absolute authority by divine or hereditary rights
4 Divine Right-A monarch rules by sanction or approval of God Divine Right-A monarch rules by sanction or approval of God. Power comes from God to the king, who has the right to do whatever he wants.Majority Rule-decisions made by the majorityDemocracy-rule by the peopleRepublic-an indirect form of democracy in which citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf
5 Constitutional Monarchy-form of government in which there is a contractual agreement (or constitution) between a monarch and the peopleConstitution- a plan for government (establishes 1. structure of gov’t 2. common beliefs 3. it is an incomplete guide)Unitary System- gives all key power to the national or central government
6 John Locke-Enlightenment thinker who believed government had a duty to protects its citizens’ life, liberty, and property. Influenced Declaration of Independence.Baron de Montesquieu- Famous for the theory of Separation of Powers, which has been implemented in many constitutions throughout the world, Montesquieu influenced the Constitution.Jean-Jacques Rousseau-Wrote Social Contract. According to Rousseau, by joining together into civil society through the social contract, individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. Influenced Declaration of Independence and Constitution.
7 Voltaire-Enlightenment thinker famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil rights and liberties, including freedom of religion, speech, and free trade. Influenced Bill of Rights.Niccolo Machiavelli- Machiavelli’s name is synonymous with tough and dirty politics. Author of The Prince. One of history’s first political scientists.
8 Government- the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisionsState- a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized governmentPower-the government’s authority to make and enforce policies and laws
9 Policy-any decision made by government in pursuit of a particular goal Politics-the process by which government makes and carries out decisionsNatural Law-a system of rules derived from the natural world. The Natural World provides a just and rational order to all things in the world.
10 Social Contract Theory-a theory of society in which government is a contract between government and the governed to provide protection and support for the people.Federal System- divides powers of government between national state and local levelsConfederal System- confederacy- a loose union of independent statesDictatorship-form of government in which one person has claimed power and the right to rule by force
11 Direct Democracy-a form of government in which citizens meet regularly to discuss and vote on laws Parliamentary System-a form of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature