Presentation on theme: "Principles of Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Principles of Government What is “the state” ?Taken from the Latin stare (to stand) a state is a political community that occupies a definite territory; having an organized government with the authority to make and enforce laws without the consent of a higher authority.* Synonymous with the term country and nation-state* Not to be confused with nation, which is defined as a group of people united by some common bond. Such as…
2 What are the features of a state? Principles of GovernmentWhat are the features of a state?PopulationTerritory / landSovereignty – supreme and absolute power within its territorial boundaries. For example…Government – the institution and processes through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces binding decisions. Such as…
3 Principles of Government Origins of the StateHow did states and governments come into being? Four theories:Evolution TheoryForce TheoryDivine RightSocial Contract
4 Evolution Theory States evolved from family units Principles of GovernmentEvolution TheoryStates evolved from family unitsFamilies grew into large extended units or tribesHeads of the family served as a government How so…Evolved into tribal councils with a hierarchy of authorityExamples…
5 Principles of Government Force TheoryGovernments emerged when people are were brought under the control of some authorityStates emerged from the conquest of other families or tribes
6 Principles of Government Divine RightBelief that kings are chosen by a deity to rule the state Ancient examples include Egyptians and Aztecs15th Century Europe, the belief is used by royalty as the justification for absolute ruleTo question the king was not only treason but seen as a sin against God
7 Social Contract ~ Hobbes Principles of GovernmentSocial Contract ~ Hobbes17th Century & The Age of Enlightenment, People begin to challenge the monarchy and the idea of Divine RightThomas Hobbes promotes the concept of government by social contract
8 Hobbes ~ Social Contract Principles of GovernmentHobbes ~ Social ContractIn a “state of Nature” there is no government and man is free.However, absolute freedom has a price… life is “cruel, brutish and short” Why?To escape this cruel reality, men would give up some freedom to the state; in return the government (state) would offer people security through law & order
9 Locke ~ Social Contract Principles of GovernmentLocke ~ Social ContractJohn Locke took Hobbes ideas one step further by promoting the “right to revolution”Locke believed that if the government fails to provide people with security or if the state abused its power over the people the people could change the government. Does this happen today?
10 Types of Government? Autocracy Oligarchy Democracy Principles of GovernmentTypes of Government?AutocracyOligarchyDemocracy
11 Autocracies Power and authority to rule held by one person Principles of GovernmentAutocraciesPower and authority to rule held by one personTotalitarian dictatorships (examples…)Monarchies- Absolute & Constitutional (examples…)Pros & Cons…
12 Principles of Government OligarchiesPower and authority to rule is held by a small group of individuals(Examples…)
13 Principles of Government DemocraciesFrom the Greek demos (people) and kratia (to rule). Thus ~ rule by the peopleToo simple & naïveDemocracy is a system of government in which people select policy makers so that policies reflect the will of those governed.(explain…)
14 Principles of Government Two forms of DemocracyDirect democracy allows the people the authority to govern themselves directlyPeople make and vote on policies in forumsOnly exist in small communities today
15 Principles of Government Two forms of DemocracyRepresentative democracy people select representatives and give them authority to make laws and run the governmentAlso known as: republic, indirect democracy and constitutional republicStill in all, power ultimately rests with the publicLegitimacy and Revolution?
16 Characteristics of Democracies Principles of GovernmentCharacteristics of DemocraciesIndividual libertyMajority rule with consideration of the rights of the minorityFree electionsCompeting political parties
17 Characteristics of Democracies Individual Liberty Freedom of speech does not give a person the right to scream, “Fire!” In a crowded theater ~ Oliver Wendell Holmes Explain….Remember the social contract, we agree to give up freedom for security and the rule of law.Civil liberties (freedom) is relative not absolute.
18 Characteristics of Democracies Majority Rule with Minority Rights Minority refers to numerical minority not raceElections are won by the candidate who wins the majority of votes. (Duh!)However, those who hold power should be considerate of the minority because the minority can become the majority. (Huh?)Representative legislatures prevent “tyranny of the majority” (Explain…)
19 Characteristics of Democracies Free Elections Free and open elections are the cornerstone of a democracy. (Explain…)Amendments 15, 17, 19, 23,24, & 26 have extended voting rightsEvery vote carries the same weightCandidates are able to express views freelyLegal voting requirements are kept to a minimum (Examples…)Ballots are secret (Australian Ballot) (So...)
20 Characteristics of Democracies Competing Political Parties A political party is a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates, win elections, run government and make public policy.Parties give voters a choice and voice. A vote is a statement (Explain…)Parties should clarify issues and educate the public,Parties also serve as watchdogs