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Map Link: Religious Divisions in France during the Wars of Religion: <

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1 Map Link: Religious Divisions in France during the Wars of Religion:

2 Sources of Tension in 16th c. France: Relations of Valois kings with nobles and towns Discontented peasantry Royal control of the church Catholics vs. Calvinists (Huguenots)

3 Major players: Valois kings (Catholic) Noble families: Guise (Catholic), Montmorency (Catholic), Bourbon (Huguenot) Catholics and Huguenots

4 1559 Death of Henry II of France (r. 1547-1559) while jousting Francis II (r. 1559-60) Catherine de’ Medici (1519-89)

5 1560 Bourbon (Huguenot) conspiracy to kidnap Francis II foiled. Francis dies and is succeeded by Charles IX (r. 1560-74) 1562-72 Wars between Catholics and Huguenots in France 24th Aug 1572 Scheduled date for peace celebrations in France (St Bartholomew’s Day) Margaret of ValoisHenry of Navarre (Catholic)(Bourbon, Huguenot)

6 Gaspard de Coligny (Huguenot leader) 23rd Aug 1572 Charles IX orders extermination of Huguenot leadership 24th Aug St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, led by Henry of Guise “Kill them, kill them all, it is the king’s command!”

7 1574-89 Reign of Henry III as king of France 1576 Henry makes peace with Huguenots. Catholic dévots (fanatics) form Catholic League politiques (moderates) Michel de Montaigne (1533-92)Essays

8 1584 Death of Duke of Anjou (heir to throne). Henry of Navarre becomes heir. Leads to… War of the Three Henries (1585-89): King Henry III of Valois (Catholic, “King”) Henry of Guise (Catholic, “Guise”) Henry of Navarre (Bourbon, Huguenot “Navarre”)

9 1585 King initially allies with Navarre and Duke of Montmorency vs. Guise, but switches sides Catherine de’ Medici and Guise overturn edicts tolerating Huguenots 1587 Navarre defeats King’s forces at Courtras May 1588 Guise marches on Paris. Parisians drive King out, make Guise “King of Paris.” King makes Cardinal de Bourbon his heir

10 22nd Dec 1588 King has Guise killed King allies with Navarre vs. Catholic League 1st Apr 1589 King killed. Navarre becomes king Henry IV (r. 1589-1610)

11 1589-94 Henry IV defeats enemies, takes control of France 1593 Henry IV reconverts to Catholicism, but retains Huguenot counsellor Duke de Sully (1560-1641) “Paris is well worth a Mass.” Marie de’ Medici (1573-1642)

12 1595-98 Henry IV fights war with Spain 1598 Last forces of Catholic League capitulate. Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes Economic reform “Henri le Grand” (Henry the Great) 14th May 1610 Henry IV killed by monk François Ravaillac

13 Louis XIII (r. 1610-43) 1617 Louis exiles Marie de’ Medici 1622 Louis completes suppression of rebellions 1624 Louis appoints Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu as first minister

14 Extending royal power: 32 généralités (districts) Subduing Huguenots and others Opposing Spain in Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) Defeating opponents

15 Strengthening French Monarchy: Enhanced prestige of monarch Improving financial health of kingdom Asserting position on European stage Asserting military power Laying foundation for absolute monarchy

16 Jacques-Auguste de Thou (Thuanus, 1553-1617) French statesman, bibliophile, historiographer Studied law, but became canon of Notre Dame. Served as councillor of state, then (in 1595), became president of Paris parlement

17 Jacques-Auguste de Thou (Thuanus, 1553-1617) 1598 Negotiated Edict of Nantes Opposed Council of Trent, persecuted by Catholic Church Historia sui Temporis (History of His Own Time), banned by Catholic Church

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