Presentation on theme: "RENEWED RELIGIOUS STRUGGLE Peace of Augsburg 1555 Cuius Regio Eius Religio Region ’ s Ruler Determines the Religion Only recognized Catholics and Lutherans."— Presentation transcript:
RENEWED RELIGIOUS STRUGGLE Peace of Augsburg 1555 Cuius Regio Eius Religio Region ’ s Ruler Determines the Religion Only recognized Catholics and Lutherans Calvinism Centered in Geneva Considered the New Papists but became aggressive firebrands when denied right Presbyters represent congregations. Appealed to local nobles, princes and middle class who fought against centralized powers Presbyters Local and religious Art work Christopher Wren simple and restrained Catholicism Centered in Rome International Counteroffensive with Jesuits Church Hierarchy fits nicely with Absolute Monarchs because they centralized power with obedience to those at the top Art work: Bernini Shock and Awe Intellectuals advised acceptance of more than one religion (pluralism) = Tolerance Result were POLITIQUES who put unity of nation above religion with tolerance moderation & Compromise
The “Days of our Lives” during the French Wars of Religion Henry II Accident during the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth to Philip II of Spain established a weak monarchy under Henry II three sons, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III The Catholic Valois line is challenged by the other strong Catholic family in France, the Guises and two Protestant families: Montmorency-Chatillon (Coligny) family and Bourbons (Conde)
French Wars of Religion Anti-Protestant Measures Capture of Francis I by Charles V French persecute Huguenots to appease Charles and to win release of the King Mass arrests of Huguenots after they put up anti-Catholic signs forced Calvinists into exile Edict of Fontainebleau – French Inquisition Edict of Chateaubriand – more restrictions against Huguenots by Henry II Struggle for Power Death of Henry II begins a struggle for the throne between Catholics and Protestants Catholic families Valois & Guise V. Protestant Families Bourbons [Conde] & Montmorency-Chatillon [Coligny] Francis II m Mary Stuart Queen of Scots Elizabeth Valois m Philip II Spain Charles IX m Elizabeth Hapsburg Henry III m Louise Margaret Valois m. Henry Navarre
Appeal of Calvinism for Political Goals Huguenots made up 1/5 population but two fifths were Aristocrats (Nobles) who used Calvinism to achieve political goals that challenged the King Conde and Coligny (MC) merged with Calvinists to benefit political & religious dissidents Calvinism with militarism of Conde and Coligny families was a viable religious alternative to Catholicism and gave political opposition validation Guises - East Protestants - Center and South West
Francis II Because he was young when he became king, his mother, Catherine D’Medici served as his regent Married Mary Stuart of Scotland who was a Guise (Catholic) During his 17th month rule, Mary used her influence to have her two uncles placed in powerful positions. One Guise became a Duke the Second Guise became a Bishop
Charles IX (1560 - 1574) He was only 10 when he took the throne in France but a great deal happened under his rule. Poissy tried to unite C and P January Edict - P got freedom of worship French Wars - Guise commits Massacre at Vassy Because P delayed support of Queen, she was forced to ally with Guises Peace of Saint-Germaine -en- Laye St. Bartolomew Day Massacre So let’s look at these events under his and Catherine’s reign
Tried to unite the Catholic and Protestant factions at Poissy. When that failed she issued the January Edict that granted Protestants the right to worship publicly outside towns The Catholics were not happy with this so they staged the massacre at Vassy and slaughtered Protestants. Because the Protestants did not hurry to her defense, Cat was forced to side with the Catholics for a while This marked the beginning of open conflict in France Catherine d’ Medici
French Wars of Religion 1562 - 1563 The duke of Guise is killed. German Protestants (Hess and Palatinate) help the French Huguenots 1567 - 1568 1568 - 1570 Protestant Conde was killed and replaced by Coligny, a better strategist. After the Peace of St. Germaine, the crown recognized Protestant nobility, granted Huguenots religious freedom in their territories, and allowed them to fortify the walls around their cities Coligny becomes the Protestant Advisor to the Catholic King Charles but Catherine began to plot against the Protestants because …………….
So, what Changed things for Catherine Coligny (Charles IX’s advisor) had a relative, Louis of Nassau who lived in the Netherlands. Louis was the Protestant leader of the resistance against Catholic Spain. He needed help against Spain and asked Coligny to convince the Catholic King of France to send forces. That was a red flag for Catherine. The Spaniards had just defeated the Turks in the Battle of Lepanto and now had control of the Mediterranean. They also had more money than God and a strong army. To go against Spain was ….. Well, ill-advised.. So, Catherine joined forces with the Catholic Guises to oust Coligny as advisor. When an assassination attempt failed, she convinced her son, the king, that Coligny was plotting against him.
St. Bartolomew’s Day Massacre Coligny and 3,000 Huguenots were butchered in Paris. Within three days 20,000 more were executed. This changed things in France It was no longer a battle between the Guise and Bourbons, now it became an international struggle for survival for the Protestants
War of the Three Henry’s Henry III (Valois) 1574 - 1589 Came to the throne and found himself lodged between the radical Catholics League led by the Guises and the vengeful Huguenots so he looked to neutral factions for support Peace of Beaulieu granted Protestants religious freedom but the Catholic forced Henry to rescind it Day of Barricades Catholic league fortified their positions in the streets of Paris. When Henry could not force them out he joined forces with Henry of Navarre and assassinated the duke and cardinal Guise. (One of them was the 2 Henry) Henry IV of Navarre Henry III was killed by a Jacobin friar for the assassination of the Guises. That left only Henry Bourbon to take the throne. He had a right to the crown because he had married Margaret Valois. He immediately converted to Catholicism because it was the religion of Most Frenchmen, “Paris is worth a Mass” To offer solace to the Protestants he issued the Edict of Nantes You look up the details