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Civil War In France (1562-1598). The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End  Henri II was the last powerful Valois  Three weak sons followed:  Francis.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil War In France (1562-1598). The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End  Henri II was the last powerful Valois  Three weak sons followed:  Francis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil War In France ( )

2 The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End  Henri II was the last powerful Valois  Three weak sons followed:  Francis II  Charles IX  Henri III

3 Catherine de’ Medici  controlled the sons:  Was mother to the boys  Played both sides in the civil war  Developed a reputation for cruelt y

4 Francis II & His Wife, Mary Stuart

5 The Medicis and the Guises French King Henri II died in 1559 – Weakness in the monarchy occurs – Power struggle between Guises, Montmorency, and Bourbons Catherine de Medici unsuccessfully attempts to reconcile the differences between the Protestants and the Catholic Guises (dominant radical Catholic group of Eastern France) with the edict of toleration granting religious toleration The Duke of Guise massacres Protestant worshippers in a barn causing the French wars of religion

6 The massacre of worshipping Protestants at Vassy, France (March 1, 1562), which began the French wars of religion. An engraving by an unidentified seventeenth- century artist

7 The French Civil War  There were two sides:  Guise family led Catholics in North  Bourbon family led Huguenots in South  Fighting for the royal inheritance  Catherine turns to the Guises fearing Protestant leader Admiral Coligny and the Hugenots would end her son’s reign and the Valois monarchy  After about ten years of fighting, the Hugenots gained the upper hand with the death of the Duke of Guise

8 A Marriage Occurs In hopes of maintaining her son, King Charles IX on the throne, Catherine arranges a marriage between her daughter and Henry of Navarre (a main leader of the Hugenots) In 1572, Hugenot aristocracy gathered in Paris for the wedding

9 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre  August 24, 1572  20,000 Huguenots were killed Catherine convinces her son King Charles IX that a Huguenot coup was about to happen Coligny and 3,000 Huguenots are massacred in Paris / within three days 20,000 other Protestants are also killed in France Henri of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived due to converting back to Catholicism on the spot  later recants in response, Protestant writers call for an active defense of religious rights

10 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

11 Henry III Guise family, unhappy with the marriage of Henry of Navarre (Hug) and French king’s daughter, formed the powerful Catholic League to challenge the Valois dynasty Henry III and Catherine turned to Henry of Navarre to defeat the Catholic League AGREEMENT: Henry of Navarre will become the heir to the throne after defeating the Guise family

12 The French Civil War  Henri of Navarre defeated Catholic League  Henry III is assassinated  Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV King of France. Effects of Civil War:  France was left divided by religion  Royal power had weakened  Valois family now replaced by Bourbons Catholic League Protestant Union CIVIL WAR

13 Triumphal Entry of Henry IV Into Paris – Peter Paul Reubens

14  Ended Spanish interference in France  Converted to Catholicism :  Did this to compromise and make peace  This was an example of politique [the interest of the state comes first before any religious considerations]  Passed Edict of Nantes in 1598:  Granted religious rights to Huguenots  Did not grant religious freedom for all Henry IV of France “Paris is worth a mass”

15 The Edict of Nantes a formal religious settlement that gave Protestants religious freedoms within their own towns and territories the violence stops, but hostilities remain a Catholic fanatic assassinates Henry IV in 1610

16 Politiques intellectuals of the 1500’s criticized the religious strife between Catholics and Protestants rulers who urged tolerance and moderation and became indifferent to religion

17 “The Henry Bunch” King Henry IIIHenry, Duke of GuiseKing Henry IV of Navarre mp3

18 Directions Using what you know about the French Civil War, create a short song summarizing the events of the War of Three Henries Write your lyrics to the theme song the Brady Bunch. “and that’s the way we all became the Henry bunch”


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