Presentation on theme: "World History Chapter 4: First Age of Empires ◦ Section 1: The Egyptian and Nubian Empires ◦ Section2: The Assyrian Empire ◦ Section 3: The Persian Empire."— Presentation transcript:
World History Chapter 4: First Age of Empires ◦ Section 1: The Egyptian and Nubian Empires ◦ Section2: The Assyrian Empire ◦ Section 3: The Persian Empire ◦ Section 4: The Unification of China SSWH1: The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE. (Elements b & c) SSWH2: The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE. (Elements a, b, & d)
Let’s Preview the Chapter….. Empire Building: Groups from Africa to China sought to conquer other groups and spread their influence across vast regions. These societies built the world’s first great empires. Question : Use the map on page 87 to locate the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers, where many of early empires arose. Why do you think the empire builders fought over these regions?
Answer to Question….. The river valleys were fertile areas and the rivers fostered transportation and trade.
Let’s Preview the Chapter…. Cultural Interaction: For a long period, Egypt ruled Kush and the two cultures interacted. When the Kush Empire conquered Egypt, therefore, the Kushites adopted many Egyptian cultural values and ideas. Question: Study the map and timeline to tell what other cultures might have adopted Egyptian values?
Answer to Question….. Egyptian culture might have influenced Assyrian, Persian, Mycenaean, Minoan, Greek, and Roman cultures.
Let’s Preview the Chapter…… Religious and Ethical Systems: After the warring states period, Chinese philosophers developed different ethical systems to restore China’s social order. Question: How might China’s location have affected the spread of the ethical systems that began there?
Answer to Question…… Chinese ethical systems probably didn’t spread to empires in Africa or Southwest Asia because of the distance and natural barriers separating China and these other empires.
Timeline Discussion Use the timeline on pages 86 and 87 to answer the following questions. 1. How many years passed between the establishment of the New Kingdom in Egypt and the conquest of Egypt by Kush? 819 Years
Timeline Discussion In what year did the Qin Dynasty collapse? 202 B.C.
Timeline Discussion During this time in history, events in Persia and Greece were occurring that would bring the two cultures into conflict. What was happening in Greece? In 750 B.C., Greek city-states were beginning to establish colonies. In 334 B.C., Alexander was starting to build an empire.
Timeline Discussion Persia eventually ruled all of the land controlled by the Assyrian Empire. Approximately how long after the rise of the Assyrian Empire did the Persian Empire flourish? 300 years
Timeline Discussion When the Minoan civilization on the Mediterranean island of Crete ended, what empire existed nearby? Egypt
Section 1 Study Questions and Vocabulary Hyksos Asiatic invaders who swept across the Isthmus of Suez in chariots. They ruled Egypt from about 1640 to 1570 B.C. The invasion by the Hyksos shook the Egyptians’ confidence in the desert barriers that had protected their kingdom.
Section 1 Study Questions and Vocabulary How were the Hyksos driven out of Egypt? Around 1600 B.C. a series of warlike rulers began to restore Egypt’s power. Among those who helped drive the Hyksos out was Queen Ahhotep. There was also Kamose, a pharoah who won a great victory over the hated Hyksos. His successors drove the Hyksos completely out of Egypt across the Sinai Peninsula into Palestine.
Section 1 Study Questions and Vocabulary Why was the New Kingdom of Egypt considered the most wealthiest and powerful? This Kingdom was equipped with bronze weapons and two-wheeled chariots. This helped the Egyptians become conquerors. The pharaohs of this kingdom set up an army including archers, charioteers, and infantry or foot soldiers.
New Kingdom of Egypt
Who was Hatshepsut? Why was she considered one of the most prosperous Egyptian rulers? Hatshepsut An Egyptian woman who declared herself pharaoh around 1472 B.C. She took over after her stepson, the male heir, was a young child at the time he inherited the throne. She spent her time as a pharaoh encouraging trade rather than waging war. Her trading expeditions brought things to Egypt such as ivory, gold, and unusual plants and animals.
Who was Thutmose III and why was he a more warlike ruler than Hatshepsut? Thutmose III Hatshepsut’s stepson. In his eagerness to ascend to the throne, he may have murdered his stepmother. He led a number of victorious invasions eastward into Palestine and Syria and he also pushed into Nubia.
Who was Ramses II? Ramses II Reigned over Egypt’s New Kingdom from 1290 to 1224 B.C. He stood out among the great builders of the New Kingdom. He had a temple built into the red sandstone cliffs above the Nile River and had them decorated with enormous statues of himself.
What were some of the political and economic effects of Egypt’s conquest? Conquest brought Egypt riches and cultural influences. It also brought conflict with conquered peoples.
How did Thutmose III’s and Ramses II’s empire decline? Other strong civilizations rose to challenge Egypt’s power. Shortly after Ramses’ death, the entire eastern Mediterranean suffered a wave of invasions.
Where is Nubia? This is a region of Africa that straddled the upper Nile River. Egypt had traded with Nubia and influenced the region since the time of the Middle Kingdom.
What are some characteristics of Nubians? The Nubians were the people of the Nubian kingdom of Kush. These people lived in southern Egypt between the first cataract of the Nile and the division of the river into the Blue and White Nile. These people were great traders. Nubians were influenced by Egyptian priests, soldiers, governors and artists.
What is the relationship between Nubia and Kush? The kingdom of the Nubian people is Kush. Some are called Nubians and some are called Kushites. The Kushites learned Egyptian language and worshipped Egyptian gods. Kushites adopted the customs and clothing styles of the upper class.
Nubians and Kushites
Why might Kushites have viewed themselves as guardians of Egyptian values? Nubian royals and nobles received their education in Egypt. When they returned home, they carried back Egyptian styles and ideas.
Who is Piankhi? A Kushite king who overthrew the Libyan dynasty in 751 BC that had ruled over Egypt for over 200 years. He united the entire Nile Valley from the delta in the north to Napata in the south. He and his descendants became Egypt’s 25 th dynasty. His dynasty was short-lived and conquered by the Assyrians in 671 BC.
What was the significance of Meroe? Why did it decline? After the Assyrians defeated the Kushites the royal family moved south to Meroe. Meroe was located closer to the Red Sea and became active in trade in Africa and India. It became a major center for the manufacture of weapons and tools. Meroe declined when it was dominated by Askum around 350 BC.
Who were the Assyrians? The people of Assyria acquired a large empire by means of a highly advanced military organization and state of the art weaponry. The Assyrians came from the northern part of Mesopotamia. An Assyrian King Sennacherib often bragged about his conquests and especially the burning of Babylon.
Who were the Assyrians?
Why did the Assyrians become so powerful? Assyria was a society that prided themselves on military strength. The soldiers were well equipped making use of the ironworking technology. Soldiers covered themselves with stiff leather and metal armor. They wore copper or iron helmets, padded loincloths, and leather skirts layered with metal scales. Their weapons were iron swords and iron-pointed spears.
Why did Assyrians become so powerful? They used advanced planning and technological skill to lay siege to enemies. The Assyrians used techniques such as pontoons to fight in water, digging under city walls to weaken their enemies, and marching soldiers in shoulder to shoulder formations. (Read pg )
Nineveh Some of Assyria’s most fearsome warriors earned reputations as great builders. An example – King Sennacherib who had burned Babylon also established Assyria’s capital – Nineveh along the Tigris River. Nineveh was a great walled city about three miles long and a mile wide and the largest city of its day.
Ashurbanipal Ashurbanipal was one of the last of the mighty Assyrian kings, famous for creating one of the world’s largest libraries in Ninevah. What caused the decline of the Assyrian Empire? Shortly after his death, Ninevah fell. In 612 B.C. a combined army of Medes and Chaldeans burned and leveled Ninevah.
Who was Nebuchadnezzar and how did he contribute to the rebirth of Babylon? After they defeated the Assyrians, the Chaldeans made Babylon their capital. Chaldean king given credit for restoring the city of Babylon. His most famous restoration was the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. His empire fell shortly after his death.
Who was Cyrus? Why was he called the “Great”? Persian king who was a military genius who led his army from victory to victory between 550 and 539 BC. Cyrus’ most enduring legacy was his method of governing. His kindness toward conquered peoples revealed a wise and tolerant king. Cyrus was called the great because he demonstrated compassion in the conquest and organization of his empire.
Who was Cyrus?
Who was Cambyses? Explain his rule of Persia. Cyrus’ son who succeeded to the Persian throne after his father’s death in 530 BC. He expanded the Persian Empire by conquering Egypt. He was not as wise as his father and scorned Egyptian religion by having all images of Egyptian gods burned. He died after ruling for only 8 years.
Who was Cambyses?
Who is Darius? Why was he an effective king? Cambyses’ successor who ruled from 521 to 486 BC. A member of the noble ruling dynasty who began his career as a member of the kings bodyguard. He was a great warrior, although his real genius lay in administration. He brought peace and stability to the empire. He divided his empire into 20 provinces, called satrapies.
Who is Darius? Why was he an effective king? Each satrapy was governed by a satrap or governor who was also known as the “protector of the kingdom”. The satrap had the responsibility of collecting taxes, providing justice, and recruiting soldiers.
What was the Royal Road? The Royal Road was a system of well- maintained roads dotted with way stations that provided food, shelter, and fresh horses that allowed Darius to communicate quickly with the most distant parts of the empire. The road stretched from Lydia to Susa. In this system the Persian king had exalted power. (pg. 102)
Who is Zoroaster? What did he teach? A Persian prophet who offered an answer to the question of why so much suffering and chaos existed in the world. His religion taught a belief in one god Ahura Mazda. It was a monotheistic religion. Ahura Mazda gave humans the freedom to choose between right and wrong.
Who is Confucius? What were his teachings? Confucius was known to the Chinese as the “First Teacher”. He was the most influential Chinese philosopher and scholar who developed Confucianism or the system that showed how Confucius was upset with the violence and moral decay of his era. He believed that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored in China if society was organized around five basic relationships.
What were Confucius’ teachings? The five basic relationships were: Ruler and subject Father and son Husband and wife Older sibling and younger sibling Older friend and younger friend Three of these relationships were based on family which was an important part of Chinese culture.
What is Filial Piety? Bureaucracy? Filial Piety is the belief of Confucius that children should always show respect for their parents and ancestors. Bureaucracy is a trained civil service, or those who run the government, based on Confucius’ belief that education could transform a humble born person into a gentlemen.
What is Daoism? *Daoism was a system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi. *According to tradition, Laozi or the Old Master lived around the same time as Confucius. Scholars do not know if Laozi actually existed, however people associate him with Daoism. (pg. 105) The chief ideas of Daoism are straightforward by not concerning itself with the meaning of the universe. It sets forth proper forms of human behavior.
Daoism Unlike Confucianism, Daoism believes that the way to follow the will of Heaven is not through action but inaction.
What is Legalism? Unlike Confucianism and Daoism, Legalism proposed that human beings were evil by nature. Legalists were referred to as the “School of Law” because they rejected the Confucian view that government by “superior men” could solve society’s problems. Instead they argued for a system of impersonal laws.
What is Legalism? Legalists believed in harsh laws and stiff punishment. Legalists always believed that all people were bad and not capable of being good.
What is I Ching? Also spelled Yi Jing is a book (The Book of Changes) of oracles that solved ethical or practical problems. The book was used by throwing a set of coins, interpreting the results, and then reading the appropriate oracle or prediction. The book helped people lead happy lives by offering good advice.
What is the concept of Yin and Yang? The concept that two powers together represented the natural rhythms of life. Yin represents all that is cold, dark, soft, and mysterious. Yang represents all that is warm, bright, hard, and clear. The symbol of Yin and Yang is a circle divided into halves. The circle represents the harmony of yin and yang.
Yin and Yang
What is the Qin (chinh) Dynasty? Qin Dynasty 221 BC to 206 BC. Replaced the Zhou Dynasty. Short lived dynasty. Dynasty created by Qin Shihaungdi or “The First Ruler”.
Who is Shi Haungdi? Shi Haungdi or “First Ruler or Emperor” Emperor who united China during his reign. He created a monetary system and an extensive road system of more than 4000 miles. He created irrigation projects that increased farm production. His most elaborate project was the Great Wall of China.
How did Shi Haungdi crush political opposition at home? To destroy the power of rival warlords at home, he introduced a policy called “strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches.” He commanded all the noble families to live in the capital city under his suspicious gaze. This policy uprooted 120,000 noble families.
What type of government did Shi Haungdi create? He created an autocratic government or a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner.
What were Shi Haungdi’s major accomplishments? He created a monetary system and an extensive road system of more than 4000 miles. He set the same system of writing, law, weights and measures. He created irrigation projects that increased farm production. His most elaborate project was the Great Wall of China.