Presentation on theme: "Egypt’s Powerful Kings and Queens"— Presentation transcript:
1 Egypt’s Powerful Kings and Queens Chapter 3, Section 2
2 HatshepsutPharaoh the title of the kings (and queens) of ancient EgyptQueen Hatshepsut ruled Egypt during the New Kingdom.Bold leaderLed army into battle when borders threatenedPeacefulEncouraged trade with faraway placesAfrican expeditions (ivory, gold, spices)
3 Egypt’s God-KingsEgypt’s fortunes rested on the strength of its pharaohs.The history of Ancient Egypt is the history of each of its dynasties.Dynasty a series of rulers from the same family
4 From Dynasty to Dynasty Dynasties are grouped into three periods:Earliest = Old KingdomMiddle KingdomLatest = New KingdomFor most of ancient Egyptian history, there was stable rule.
5 Menes1st dynasty began when a king named Menes united Lower and Upper Egypt.Built a city named MemphisRuled over the two landsThe uniting of Egypt began one of the most stable civilizations in history – lasted for more than 2,500 years.
6 All-Powerful Pharaohs The pharaohs had absolute power over their people – whatever he decided became law.Religious leader – belief that he provided his people with the Nile’s yearly floods and harvests that followed
7 Old Kingdom First 6 dynasties Able rules Well-run system of government Kept peace and trade with NubiaSent merchants to eastern coast of the Mediterranean for timberBuild houses, boats, furniture2250 B.C. governors in the provinces began to challenge the power of the pharaoh’s governmentEgypt’s unity crumbled dynasties grew weak
8 Old Kingdom Pyramids at Giza “During the Old Kingdom, Egyptian rulers grew in power and influence. Their people began to consider them not just kings, but also gods.”
9 Middle Kingdom Early dynasties restored order and reunited the country Spent nation’s wealth on irrigation projectsCanal built between the Nile and Red SeaLess able rulers followedLost control to foreign invaders
11 New Kingdom 1550 B.C. Egyptian princes drove out invaders Pharaohs wanted to build an empire.Created huge armies of foot soldiers, mounted warriors, and war chariots.Bronze swords and body armor = unbeatable
13 A Powerful Queen, a Great Pharaoh 1500 B.C. a child named Thutmose III became pharaoh.Because of his youth, his stepmother was appointed regent.Regent someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough to ruleHatshepsut – not content to be regent so named herself pharaohRuled for about 22 years
14 A Powerful Queen, a Great Pharaoh Refused to yield the throne to Thutmose when he was of ageHe took over when she died and all of her statues destroyed.
16 Thutmose IIIThutmose III was one of the greatest pharaohs of the new Kingdom.Led army in wars against Syria and PhoeniciaEducated, loved to study plantsTreated defeated people withmercy
17 Decline of New Kingdom Decline came around 1075 B.C. Civil war left Egypt weak and poorly defended.The mighty kingdom fell to the famous conqueror Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.Egypt became part of the Roman Empire.Egypt didn’t govern itself again for almost 2,000 years.