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New Centers of Civilization Chapter 2 Section 3 09/10/2014.

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1 New Centers of Civilization Chapter 2 Section 3 09/10/2014

2 The Role of Nomadic Peoples Indo-Europeans-nomadic group of people who spoke a language derived from a single parent tongue. Ex) Greek, Latin, Persian, etc 1750 B.C., a group of Indo- Europeans formed the Hittite kingdom. –1st Indo-Europeans to use iron. –Destroyed by the “Sea People” around 1200 BC

3 The Role of Nomadic Peoples 1200BC- End of the Hittite Kingdom and weakening of Egypt left no dominant power in Asia. This allowed a number of kingdoms and city-states to emerge in the area of Syria and Palestine. The Phoenicians were one of these peoples.

4 The Phoenicians –excellent ship builders and sailors. –established an extensive trading empire. –traded lumber, glass, perfumes and cloth –First to create an alphabet that was passed on to the Greeks.

5 The Phoenicians

6 The Israelites The founder of the Israelite kingdom was Abraham. A distinct group of organized tribes who established a united kingdom. The Israelites created the kingdom of Israel, and King David set up its capital at Jerusalem. David’s son, King Solomon, built a temple at Jerusalem.

7 The Israelites The Israelites’ religion, Judaism, was the first monotheistic (Belief in ___ God) religion; it later influenced Christianity and Islam. Belief in one god called Yahweh- the creator of the world and everything in it.

8 Judaism 3 Aspects –Covenant (contract) made with God. –Law (The Ten Commandments revealed by God) –Prophets (God’s command to live justly, share with others, care for unfortunate) Gods wishes were written down in the Hebrew Bible Monotheistic beliefs caused friction between neighborhoods.

9 DISCUSSION Look on page 50 How do the Ten Commandments relate to the laws in the United States?

10 Section 4: The Rise of New Empires A large army equipped with iron weapons enabled the Assyrians to establish a new empire in Mesopotamia by 700 B.C. Feared by most because of their fierce military strength. Used terror as an instrument of war.

11 The Rise of New Empires Brutal warriors, the Assyrians had an effective system of communication and also one of the world’s finest libraries.

12 Section 4: The Rise of New Empires A fter the collapse of the Assyrian empire, the Chaldeans of Babylonia under king Nebuchadnezzar made Babylon the leading state in western Asia. He rebuilt Babylon and made it one of the great cities of the ancient world as a major trade center. Babylon fell to the Persians in 539 B.C. and the Persian Empire became the leading power in the area.

13 The Rise of New Empires Under Cyrus the Great, the Persians created a state that stretched from Asia Minor to western India. Cyrus ruled with remarkable wisdom and compassion. Immortals –professional cavalry and infantry consisting of 10,000 soldiers each. When one died he was immediately replaced.

14 The Rise of New Empires Cyrus’s successors expanded the empire, relying on a system of provincial governors (satraps) who collected taxes, provided justice and security, and recruited soldiers. Darius, After the collapse of the Assyrian Empire, the Persian Empire became the leading power. ruled from 521 B.C. to 486 B.C added a new Persian providence in western India. Built the Royal Road- highway to expand trade from Susa (Persia) to Lydia, near the Mediterranean Sea.

15 The Rise of New Empires Zoroastrianism- monotheistic Persian religion started by Zoroaster, the prophet. Believed that Ahuramazda (good spirit) was the supreme god who brought all things into being. He was opposed by Ahriman, the evil spirit. Humans had fee will and could choose between good and evil.

16 The Rise of New Empires Darius had a great infantry force and excellent soldiers. However, Persian kings became isolated at their courts, surrounded by luxuries making his monarchy very weak. Struggles to control the throne also weakened the empire. This led to its conquest by the Greek ruler Alexander the Great in 330s B.C.

17 The Rise of New Empires Alexander the Great conquered the Persians in the 330s B.C.


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