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Chapter 5 Sections 1 and 2 Kush and Egypt

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1 Chapter 5 Sections 1 and 2 Kush and Egypt

2 Geography and Early Kush
A group of people settled in a region we now call Nubia. These Africans established the first large kingdom in the interior of Africa. Development of Kushite civilization was greatly influenced by the geography of Nubia.

3 The Land of Nubia In ancient times it was fertile farmland. Today it is mostly desert. Nubia was rich in valuable minerals such as gold, copper, and stone. These natural resources contributed to the region’s wealth. Kush today

4 Map of Kush Cataract in Nubia

5 Early Civilization in Nubia
The Nile flooded every year bringing fresh silt. Settlements began around 3500 BC. First kingdom began around 2000 BC. First capital was Kerma, near a cataract. For many years cataracts kept Kush safe from the more powerful Egypt. Early Civilization in Nubia

6 Agriculture in Kush

7 Egypt played a great role in Kush’s history.
Egypt Controls Kush Very dark and heavy ebony wood carving Egypt played a great role in Kush’s history. Kushites sent the Egyptians ebony and ivory. Around 1500 BC Thutmose I sent an army to control Kush and it became a part of Egypt. Egyptian ivory comb from an elephant’s tusk

8 Thutmose I and II Thutmose I Reigned 18 years Thutmose II Reigned

9 Effects of the Conquest
Kush remained an Egyptian territory for the next 450 years. *Egypt influenced in the following ways: Religion* Clothing styles* Pyramid building* Language*

10 An example of Egyptian influence on Kushite culture can be found in religion.

11 Kush rules Egypt Around 700 BC the armies of Kush, under the leadership of King Kashta, swept into Egypt and conquered it. Egypt had become weak under the rule of pharaohs who were poor leaders. Kushite warriors

12 Piankhi Piankhi, BC, was the son of Kashta. He was a strong and successful military leader. He extended Kush’s kingdom from Napata to the Nile Delta. He loved his horses and was buried with eight of them!!!!

13 End of Kushite Rule in Egypt
The Kushites ruled Egypt for about 40 years. In 670 BC, the powerful army of the Assyrians from Mesopotamia, invaded Egypt. The Assyrian army had iron weapons and were much stronger than the Kushite/Egyptian bronze weapons. After about 10 years of fighting, the Kushites were completely driven out of Egypt. End of Kushite Rule in Egypt Stronger Iron weapons

14 * Early Nubian Civilization was Based on Trade*
Meroe, located on the banks of the Nile, was Kush’s new capital. Its location was perfect because goods could be sent down the Nile. Gold and ebony was found nearby. What is a trade network? It is a system of people in different lands who trade goods back and forth. * Early Nubian Civilization was Based on Trade* Iron and gold

15 Kush’s Trade Network

16 Imports and Exports Kush export… Ivory What is an export? It is an item made in one place that is sent to another region for trade. What is an import? It is an item made in another region brought in for trade. Kush import… Egyptian jewelry

17 *Kush was influenced greatly by Egypt: clothing, temples, calling their rulers pharaohs and burying them in pyramids.* *Kush had many elements of their culture that were unique such as their houses, and written language.* In addition to Egyptian gods they worshiped their own gods, such as Apedemek, a lion-headed god. Kushite Culture Typical Kush home

18 Meroitic Language of Kush

19 Women in Kushite Society
Queen Shanakhdakheto Unlike other women in the world, Kush women were greatly valued and expected to be active in their society. Many women fought along with the men during war. Many women held positions of authority, especially in the area of religion. 1st Kushite Queen probably gained rule after her father or husband died Ruled from BC

20 It is believed that the decline of the Kush empire was caused by farmers allowing their cattle to over-graze, eating all the grass. Without grass, the soil had nothing to hold onto. The wind blew all the top soil away. Without soil the farmers could no longer grow enough crops to support the population. Iron workers cut down all the trees for their furnaces. They could no longer make iron tools or weapons to trade and their economic power declined. Decline and Defeat No top soil or trees

21 Rise of Aksum Aksum is located southeast of Kush on the Red Sea. It power rose because of its location and increase trade. In 350 AD the Aksumite army of King Ezana destroyed Meroe and took over the kingdom of Kush. Artist’s drawing of ancient Aksum

22 Summary

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