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Chapter 3 Section 3: The Assyrian and Persian Empires

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1 Chapter 3 Section 3: The Assyrian and Persian Empires
Hundred of years after Hammurabi’s death in 1750 BCE the Assyrians united the region again. The Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires Assyria lies north of Babylon along the Tigris River A Military State After Babylonia fell, the Assyrians fought against a steady stream of invaders. They became fierce warriors World’s first cavalry Soldiers who fight while riding horses Used iron weapons and tools By mid 800’s BCE- strong military state By mid 600’s BCE- became an empire

2 Divided into 70 smaller units called provinces
Governing the Empire Divided into 70 smaller units called provinces Assigned a governor to each province Ashurbanipal made Neneveh the capital Built a library- 20,000 tablets survive today Babylon Restored After Ashurbanipal’s death Civil war and enemy attacks weaken empire 604 BCE Nebuchadnezzar became king of Babylon Captured Jerusalem and destroyed Jewish temple Became known as the Neo-Babylonian empire Built large buildings, great walls, gates, and temples Built Hanging Gardens of Babylon

3 Rise of the Persian Empire
Babylon’s thick walls and strong gates could not keep out conquerors In 539 BCE, Persian empire took control Within 30 years, Persian empire became the largest empire the world had ever seen Cyrus the Great Read MyStory In 550 BCE, Cyrus the Great conquered the Medes Rapid growth was due to it’s highly skilled standing army A permanent army of professional soldiers 10,000 elite soldiers known as the “Immortals” Conquest of Babylon Cyrus treated the Babylonians well Let them keep their own customs and religions Allowed Jewish people to return to Jerusalem Further Expansion Cyrus died in battle in 530 BCE Son Cambyses took over and continued to expand empire Cambyses died and Darius took the throne by force Empire grew larger

4 Persia’s Government and Religion
Darius gave local people some control over their government Local Self-Government Divided empire into satrapies, or provinces and chose a leader for each one Keep their local laws and traditions Central Control Darius improved government finances Each province paid tribute according to it’s wealth Created common currency- gold coins New Roads Darius built roads Set-up postal stations along the 1,500 Great Royal Road took three months from one end to the other Religion By 600 BCE, Persian man named Zoroaster taught that there was one supreme god, Ahura Mazda Developed into Zorastrianism and became Persian’s official religion Sacred text is the Avesta Universe is in a state of struggle between the forces of good and evil People have an important role to play in this conflict working for good Afterlife existed

5 Give us a glimpse of daily life Seals
Arts of Mesopotamia Give us a glimpse of daily life Seals Used carved stone seals to identify the owner of an object Sculptures Looked like real humans Created a form of sculpture called relief The scene sticks out from the surface of the base material Stele is a carved stone slab or pillar that stands on end Stele of Hammurabi’s code is a famous example- pg 122

6 Fertile Crescent Peoples
Name Time Period Major Accomplishments

7 Chapter 3 Section 3 Quiz What do cavalry soldiers do? fire cannons
fix chariots march in formation ride horses What was new technology used by the Assyrians? farming glass blowing ironwork resettling conquered peoples What is a permanent force of professional soldiers called? charioteers “The Immortals” special forces standing army Payment made to show loyalty to a stronger power is called a seal taxes tribute currency What is a stele? A cylinder seal colorful tiles a stone slab a ziggurat garden

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