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“ With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are.

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Presentation on theme: "“ With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are."— Presentation transcript:

1 “ With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan – to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations. Abraham Lincoln Second Inaugural Address

2 Timeline of Events 1865 Confederacy surrenders at Appomattox, April 9 th Abraham Lincoln assassinated on April 14 th Andrew Johnson becomes President Thirteenth Amendment passed abolishing the institution of slavery Congress creates the Freedmen’s Bureau

3 Timeline of Events 1866 President Johnson proposes moderate Reconstruction policies Tennessee readmitted into the Union Austro-Prussian War is fought Civil Rights Act Ku Klux Klan founded in Tennessee by Nathaniel Bedford Forrest

4 Timeline of Events 1867 U.S. purchases Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (Seward’s Folly) Reconstruction Act of 1867 First South African diamond field is discovered

5 Timeline of Events 1868 Fourteenth Amendment ratified Congress impeaches President Johnson Ulysses S. Grant elected President Arkansas readmitted into the Union Louisiana readmitted into the Union

6 Timeline of Events 1868 Alabama readmitted into the Union South Carolina readmitted into the Union North Carolina readmitted into the Union Florida readmitted into the Union

7 Timeline of Events 1869 Mohandas K. Gandhi is born in India 1870 Fifteenth Amendment ratified Enforcement Act of 1870 Virginia readmitted into the Union

8 Timeline of Events 1870 Georgia readmitted into the Union Texas readmitted into the Union Mississippi readmitted into the Union Unification of Italy is completed

9 Timeline of Events 1871 U.S. and Great Britain sing Treaty of Washington Kaiser Wilhelm I unifies Germany 1872 Horace Greeley runs for president as a Liberal Republican U.S. Grant is reelected

10 Timeline of Events 1874 British declare Gold Coast of Africa a colony 1875 France’s National Assembly votes to continue the Third Republic 1876 Hayes-Tilden presidential election results in deadlock

11 Timeline of Events 1877 Federal troops withdraw from the South Rutherford B. Hayes is inaugurated Reconstruction ends

12 The Politics of Reconstruction Reconstruction Period during which the U.S. began to rebuild after the Civil War, lasting from 1865 until 1877 It is the process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate states Lincoln, Johnson, and Congress all had different plans

13 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln favored a lenient Reconstruction policy Believed secession was constitutionally impossible so the Confederate states had never seceded Individuals, not the states had rebelled

14 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction (AKA ~ 10% Plan) Presented in December 1863 Government would pardon all Confederates (except high-ranking Confederate officials and those accused of war crimes against POWs) if they would swear allegiance to the Union After 10% of those on the voting lists in 1860 swore allegiance, a state could form a new state government and gain representation in Congress

15 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction 4 states moved towards readmission Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia Radical Republicans in Congress Led by Charles Sumner ~ Massachusetts Senator and Thaddeus Stevens ~ Pennsylvania Representative Wanted to destroy political power of the former slaveholders Wanted African Americans to have full citizenship and the right to vote

16 Radical Reaction Wade-Davis Bill Proposed Congress not the president be in charge of Reconstruction Majority of those eligible to vote in 1860 had to swear an oath of allegiance not just 10% Lincoln’s used a pocket veto to kill the bill after Congress adjourned Radicals became upset and outraged by Lincoln’s veto Set stage for a presidential-congressional showdown

17 Johnson’s Plan Andrew Johnson Democrat from Tennessee becomes president in April 1865 Staunch Unionist Presidential Reconstruction Declared each remaining state could be admitted if they met certain conditions Requirements for states Withdraw its secession Swear allegiance to the Union Annul Confederate war debts Ratify the 13 th Amendment

18 Johnson’s Plan Johnson’s Plan did not differ that much from Lincoln’s Johnson did want to prevent high ranking Confederates and wealthy plantation owners from taking the oath for voting privileges Did not address the needs of the former slaves as far as land, voting rights, and protection under the law Angered the Radical Republicans

19 Johnson’s Plan Southern States liked Johnson’s Plan Within a few months, they held conventions, set up new constitutions and elected their representatives to Congress Many of the representatives had served in the Confederate Congress, cabinet and 4 were Confederate Generals Johnson pardoned all of them Radical and African Americans were angry

20 The Standstill Congress convenes in December 1865 Radical Republicans dispute Johnson’s claim that Reconstruction was complete Congress refuses to admit the new elected Southern legislators Freedmen’s Bureau (General O.O. Howard) Congress voted to continue it in February 1866 Assisted former slaves and poor whites in the South Distributed food and clothing Set up more than 40 hospitals, 4,000 schools, 6 industrial institutes, and 74 teacher-training centers

21 Civil Rights Act of 1866 Gave African American males voting rights Forbade states from passing “black codes” ~ laws that restricted African Americans’ lives Black Codes ~ African Americans could not Carry weapons Serve on juries testify against whites Marry whites Travel without permits Own land (in some states)

22 Johnson’s Veto Johnson shocked everyone when he vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Alienated the moderate Republicans who were trying to improve his Reconstruction plans Angered the Radical Republicans by appearing to support Southerners Presidential Reconstruction ground to a halt

23 Congressional Reconstruction Radical and moderate Republicans decided to work together to overthrow Johnson’s veto Civil Rights Act of 1866 ~ first major legislation ever enacted over a presidential veto Congress drafted the 14 th Amendment Made “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” citizens of the country All were entitled to equal protection of the law Could not be deprived of their life, liberty, or property with due process of law Johnson advised Southern states not to ratify it, did not become an amendment until 1868 (Tennessee)

24 Congressional Elections of 1866 Johnson goes on a speaking tour with U.S. Grant, turns many voters away because of his rough language Moderate and Radical Republicans win a landslide victory over the Democrats Republicans gains a 2/3 majority in Congress Have enough votes to override any presidential vetoes

25 Reconstruction Act of 1867 Did not recognize state governments formed under Lincoln and Johnson’s Reconstruction plans Tennessee was excepted because it had ratified the 14 th Amendment Divided the 10 remaining Confederate states into military districts each headed by a Union general John Schofield ~ Virginia Daniel Sickles ~ North and South Carolina John Pope ~ Georgia, Alabama, and Florida Edward Ord ~ Arkansas and Mississippi Philip Sheridan ~ Texas and Louisiana

26 Reconstruction Act of 1867 Voters in districts would elect delegates to convention in which new state constitutions would be drafted To reenter into the Union a state had to ratify the 14 th Amendment Johnson vetoed it Congress overrode the veto

27 Johnson’s Impeachment Radical Republicans believed Johnson was not carrying out his obligation to enforce the Reconstruction Act Looked for grounds on which to impeach Johnson Tenure of Office Act passed by Congress in March 1867 Stated the president could not remove cabinet officers “during the term of the president by whom they may have been appointed” Trying to protect Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, their ally

28 Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson fired Stanton House of Representatives impeached Johnson on 11 charges, 9 were based on the Tenure of Office Act Trial took place in the Senate Need a 2/3 majority to remove Johnson from office The vote was 35 to 19, one vote shy of the majority

29 Election of 1868 Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour, a wartime governor of New York Republicans nominated U.S. Grant, a Civil War hero Grant won by a wide margin in the Electoral College, but on 306,000 popular votes Southern African Americans voted mostly Republican which helped Grant win the election After election Radicals introduced the 15 th Amendment (ratified in 1870) which states no one can be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”

30 Postwar South Conditions 1868 Former Confederate states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina reentered the Union 1870 Georgia, Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia reentered the Union Even with all states back in the Union, Republicans did not end Reconstruction They wanted to make economic changes in the South

31 Physical & Economic Conditions Physical Effects New Southern state governments had to rebuild battle scarred regions William T. Sherman estimated that his Union troops had destroyed about $100 million word of Confederate property in Georgia and South Carolina Destroyed railroads, buildings and bridges Neglected roads and abandoned farms had to be restored or replaced

32 Physical & Economic Conditions Economic Effects Property values plummeted Those with Confederate bonds or money had little hope of recovering their value Small farms were ruined or in disrepair Southern economic resources were destroyed Region’s population was devastated 1/5 of the adult white male population had died during the war Many who returned from the war were maimed for life Tens of thousands of African American males died as well

33 Public Works Programs Republican governments Built roads, bridges, and railroads Established orphanages Created institutions for the mentally ill and disabled Created the first public school systems Virginia ~ established its public school system in 1869 Created by Dr. William Henry Ruffner, who became the first Superintendent of Public Instruction for the Commonwealth of Virginia Was given less then 30 days to completely create it, did so in less than 20 days Increased taxes to create the money needed for recovery

34 Scalawags and Carpetbaggers Scalawags white Southerners who joined the Republican Party Hoped to gain political offices with the help of the African American vote Wanted to use the offices to enrich themselves Carpetbaggers Northerners who arrived in the South carrying so few belongings that they could fit into a carpetbag White Southerners believed these men wanted to exploit the South’s postwar turmoil for their own profit

35 African Americans as Voters Made up the largest group of Southern Republicans Many registered to vote for the first time 9 out of 10 voted Republican Eager to exercise their voting rights 90% of African American voters voted

36 Political Differences Internal conflicts in the Republican Party caused disunity New status of African Americans required changes in the attitudes of Southern whites Southern whites thought that Northern investments would help the south recover from the war Many Southern whites refused to accept the new status of blacks and resisted the idea of equal rights

37 Former Slaves Face Challenges New Won Freedoms Now allowed to travel with passes, many former slaves moved Between 1865 and 1870 the population of the 10 largest Southern cities doubled Former slaves wanted to leave the plantations behind Plantations were symbols of oppression Reunification of Families Slavery split up many African American families Many freed slaves took advantage of their freedom to look for their loved ones Freedmen’s Bureau worked to reunited families African Americans were now allowed to marry

38 Former Slaves Face Challenges Education Over 90% of freed African Americans over the age of 20 could not read or write Established educational institutions with the assistance of both public and private institutions Hampton Normal and Agricultural School was founded in Hampton, Virginia (Now Hampton University) Most teachers in black schools were initially white and about half were women By 1869, black teachers outnumbered the whites By 1877, 600,000 blacks were enrolled in elementary schools

39 Former Slaves Face Challenges Churches African Americans found their own churches after the war which were usually Baptist or Methodist African American ministers became influential in their communities Volunteer Groups Established their own fire companies, trade associations, political organizations, and drama groups Provided financial and emotional support for their members

40 Former Slaves Face Challenges Politics 1865 – 1877 Growing African American involvement First time African Americans held local, state, and federal government offices 16 African Americans elected to Congress No African American governors until Virginia elected Douglas Wilder in 1990 Hiram Revels was the first African American Senator

41 Former Slaves Face Challenges Laws Against Segregation Most Republican Southern state governments repealed the black codes Most African Americans focused on building up the black community rather than total integration By establishing separate school blacks were able to escape the interference by whites who had for so long dominated their lives

42 Changes in the Southern Economy 40 Acres and a Mule Sherman promised freed slaves who followed him 40 acres and the use of army mules 40,000 blacks settled on 400,000 acres of confiscated land and began farming it President Johnson issued an order allowing the original owners to reclaim their land Former slaves were evicted Land that was set aside for blacks and loyal white was not suitable for farming

43 Changes in the Southern Economy Restoration of Plantations Planter class wanted to restore plantations Wealthy Northern merchants encouraged this because they wanted the cash crop of cotton for their businesses White planters were determined to get the labor they needed in order to get their plantations working again Used sharecropping and tenant farming to do this Economic necessity forced former slaves to sign labor contacts with planters In exchange for wages, housing, and food, freedmen worked in the fields

44 Changes in the Southern Economy Sharecropping and Tenant Farming Sharecropping Landowners divided their land and gave each worker (freed slave or poor white) a few acres along with seeds and tools At harvest time, each worker gave a share of his crop, usually half, to the landowner Share paid the owner back and end the arrangement until the next year

45 Changes in the Southern Economy Sharecropping and Tenant Farming Tenant Farming Sharecroppers who saved a little and bought heir own tools could bargain better with landowners Could even rent land for cash from the owner and keep all their harvest Seldom worked in practice, most bought on credit from merchants who charged them inflated prices End result could not save enough to buy their own land

46 Changes in the Southern Economy Cotton No Longer King Demand for Southern cotton began to drop during the war as other countries increased their cotton production 1869 ~ 16.5 cents per pound Late 1870s ~ 8 center per pound Instead of diversifying, Southerners planted even more cotton driving the price down even further Southerners will begin to diversify the economy Devastating effects on the economy because of the war will last into the 20 th century

47 The Collapse of Reconstruction Most white Southerners accepted the change in African American status Some were bitter and used violence to keep African Americans from participating in politics

48 Ku Klux Klan Founded as a social club for Confederate veterans Started in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866 by 6 former Confederate veterans The name comes from the Greek word “kyklos” (circle) and the word clan. Eventually spread to every Southern state by 1868 Many chapters became violent terrorist organizations Goal ~ to restore white supremacy Method ~ to prevent African Americans from exercising their political rights

49 Ku Klux Klan Was a secret society so not much is truly known about the KKK They wore the robes and masks to represent the ghosts of Confederates killed during the Civil War Also wore them to remain anonymous and hide their numbers Southern states did most of their activities during the night whereas Northern states did their activities during the day

50 Ku Klux Klan A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbaggers, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor, 1868.

51 Ku Klux Klan Nathaniel Bedford Forrest Former slave trader Confederate General Said to be the KKK’s first Grand Wizard He denies that he had a leadership role in the Klan

52 Anti-Black Violence 1868 – 1871 Klan killed thousands of men, women, and children Burned schools, churches and property Any whites who tried to help were also in jeopardy Goals Turn the Republicans out of power in Southern states Use outfits to conceal their identity so they can intimidate people into not voting

53 Anti-Black Violence

54 Economic Pressure Also tried to prevent African Americans from making economic progress African Americans who owned their own land or worked in jobs other than agriculture were targeted by attacks and destruction of their property Fear of economic reprisals kept many former slaves from voting

55 Legislative Response Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871 First one provided for federal supervision of elections in Southern states Second one gave the president the power to use federal troops in areas where the Klan was active 1882 Supreme Court ruled the Enforcement Act of 1871 was unconstitutional Acts helped to decrease Klan activity By 1880 Klan managed to restore white supremacy to the South

56 Shifts in Political Power Amnesty Act of 1872 Congress returned the right to vote and hold federal and state offices to 150,000 former Confederates The former Confederates would vote democratic 1872 Congress allows the Freedmen’s Bureau to expire Southern Democrats able to shift the balance of power in their favor

57 Scandals and Money Crises Fraud and Bribery Grant Honest man with no political experience Did not believe others would use him for their own political gains Appointees to political offices proved to be dishonest Credit Mobilier Exposed by the New York Sun A construction company had skimmed off large profits from a government railroad contract Involved Schuyler Colfax, Grant’s Vice President

58 Scandals and Money Crises Republican Unity Shattered Liberal Republican Party formed in 1872 Formed because of all the scandals occurring Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune Presidential candidate Broke with the Radical Republicans because he disagreed with their politics concerning Reconstruction and the former slaves Also nominated by the Democrats Grant easily won the election of 1872

59 Continued Scandal Whiskey Ring ~ 1875 Internal revenue collectors and other officials were accepting bribes from whiskey distillers who want to avoid paying taxes on their product Defrauded the federal government of millions of dollars 238 people will be indicted in the scandal Orville E. Babcock, Grant’s private secretary was involved but Grant helped him escape prosecution

60 Continued Scandal 1876 Secretary of War, William W. Belknap accepted bribes from merchants so they could keep their trading concession in Indian Territory Secretary of the Navy, George M. Robeson, accepted bribes from shipbuilders Secretary of the Interior, Zachariah Chandler, had shady dealing with land speculators

61 The Panic of 1873 Economy was booming, investors felt it would continue to do so Invested heavily in new business opportunities Many took on more debt than they could afford Jay Cooke, a Philadelphia banker, invested heavily in railroads Did not get enough investors Cooke’s banking firm, the nation’s largest dealer in government securities, went bankrupt

62 The Panic of 1873 Financial failures became known as the Panic of 1873 Small banks closed Stock market temporarily collapsed 89 railroads went broke By 1875, 18,000 companies had folded Triggered a 5 year economic depression 3 million workers lost their jobs

63 Currency Dispute Caused by the Panic of 1873 Roots were in the Civil War Greenbacks issued by the federal government which were not backed by equal value in gold North wanted greenbacks to be taken out of circulation South and West wanted more greenbacks introduced Specie Resumption Act ~ 1875 Promised to put the country back on the gold standard which sparked more debate Economy improved and issued died down by 1878

64 Supreme Court Decisions DateDecision(s)Ruling 1873Slaughterhouse casesMost civil rights were ruled to be state, rather than federal, rights and therefore unprotected by the Fourteenth Amendment 1876U.S. v. CruikshankThe Fourteenth Amendment did not to grant the federal government power to punish whites who oppressed blacks 1876U.S. v. ReeseThe Fifteenth Amendment was determined not to grant voting rights to anyone, but rather to restrict types of voter discrimination The Supreme Court’s restrictive rulings narrowed the scope of the amendments so that the federal government could not protect black rights.

65 Northern Support Fades Supreme Court is rejecting Reconstruction policies of the 1870s Northern voters begin to grow indifferent to the South Concerns shift to national issues like the Panic of 1873 Judicial and public support for Reconstruction diminish Republicans will slowly retreat from the policies of Reconstruction

66 Democrats Redeem the South 1869 – 1875 Democrats recapture state governments of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia Named this redemption ~ their return to power in the South Redemption and the national election of 1876 will put an end to congressional Reconstruction

67 Election of 1876 Republicans choose Rutherford B. Hayes, the governor of Ohio as their candidate Democrats choose Samuel J. Tilden, the governor of New York as their candidate Tilden helped clean up graft caused by the Tweed Ring in New York City Tilden was one vote shy of winning the electoral vote A commission gave the election to Hayes because they made a deal with the Democrats

68 Election of 1876 Compromise of 1877 Withdrawal of federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina Democrats wanted federal money to build a railroad from Texas to the West coast and to improve Southern rivers, harbors, and bridges Hayes was to appoint a Southerner to his cabinet Republican leaders agreed to the demands and Rutherford B. Hayes was inaugurated Reconstruction had officially ended

69 Home Rule in the South Republicans and Democrats will dispute the rules of elections in Louisiana and South Carolina Each group will set up rival state governments Hayes removes federal troops and Democrats take over Florida’s elections were also questionable but their state supreme court ruled in favor of the Democrats All southern states were now controlled by Democrats

70 Home Rule in the South Democrats achieved their goal of home rule They now had the ability to run their state governments without federal intervention New laws passed did the following restrict the rights of African Americans wiped out social programs slashed taxes dismantled public schools

71 Legacy of Reconstruction Reconstruction ended with much real progress in the battle against discrimination Radical Republicans wanted to help former slaves but they made several mistakes By giving former slaves civil rights they thought they were protecting them Problems that occurred were that Congress did not adequately protect the rights and the Supreme Court undermined them Did not want to distribute land to former slaves which prevented them from becoming economically independent Did not fully realize the extent of racism in society

72 Legacy of Reconstruction Congressional Reconstruction was not a complete failure Allowed for the passage of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments Supreme Court will narrow their scope, but in the 20 th century they will become the foundation for civil rights legislation African Americans were the founders of many black colleges (Howard University) and volunteer organizations Literacy among blacks will increase Inspired the fight to regain civil rights

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