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The Crusades High Ho, High Ho, Its off to War we Go.

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Presentation on theme: "The Crusades High Ho, High Ho, Its off to War we Go."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Crusades High Ho, High Ho, Its off to War we Go

2 The High Middle Ages It's 106 miles to Chicago, we've got a full tank of gas, half a pack of cigarettes, it's dark, and we're wearing sunglasses. We're on a mission from God.

3 The High Middle Ages Blues Brothers Blues Brothers

4 The Crusades Who came up with this bright idea Who came up with this bright idea –The Pope  The Pope’s were able to request that kings and emperors fight in the Crusades  Failure to fight in the Crusades might lead the Pope to question your loyalty to God and further lead to excommunication  So kings and emperors sent armies and money to support the Crusades

5 The Crusades Why are we going to the Holy Land? Why are we going to the Holy Land? –To take back the Holy Land from the non Christians –To convert the non believers (Muslims) –To crush heretics  Not all Crusades were fought in the Holy Land. Southern France was the site of a Crusade  In Frankfurt Germany Crusaders on the way to the Holy Land killed 10,000 Jews just because they were not Christians

6 The Crusades Heresies Heresies –At about the same time the Crusades were starting people began to question the role and doctrine of the Catholic Church –Many heretics wanted to return to a simpler way of practicing Christianity –They rejected the wealth of the church

7 The Crusades Scholasticism Scholasticism –With the opening of universities in Europe people began to think more freely –People began to study law, philosophy, medicine, science –This new thought or scholasticism came into direct conflict with the church

8 The Crusades The Church response The Church response –To keep control of the masses the church set out strict guidelines or doctrines of practice –If these doctrines were not followed then punishment ranged from excommunication to torture and execution –At this time the church is often referred to as the Church Militant –The 4 th Crusade was directed at those deemed heretics by the church, Jews, Muslims, and heretics

9 The Crusades What motivated the Crusaders What motivated the Crusaders –Genuine religious fervor from both Christian and Muslims (Our religions is better then yours) –Geopolitical conflict between Europe and the Middle East (Hey, your stealing our money, our trade and our land) –Europe wants in on the trade routes to China and the near East –Greed-European nobles want to make a name for themselves and get rich-spoils of war –Racial and religious prejudice “I hate you” concept

10 The Crusades The term Crusade best fits the wars fought between the Muslims and the Christians between 1095 and 1291 The term Crusade best fits the wars fought between the Muslims and the Christians between 1095 and 1291

11 The Crusades The First Crusade ( ) The First Crusade ( ) –Why  1095 the Byzantine Empire asked Christian Europe for military assistance against a wave of attacks by Seljuk Turks (Muslims)  The Byzantine Empire had been fighting them off for about 20 years  The Seljuk Turks had also taken the Holy Land and Jerusalem prior to the plea for help

12 The Crusades Why Why –The Byzantine Emperor in a effort to gain assistance from the western Christians exaggerated the rumors of what the Turks were doing to Christians in the Holy Land  The whole killing innocent men women and children  Destroying sacred relics –Pope Urban II calls the Council of Clermont  The Pope calls on all European nobles to 1.Go to the Holy Land 2.Recapture Jerusalem 3.Take back the Holy Land

13 The Crusades Off we go Off we go –In 1096 a massive Christian army heads off to the Holy Land by the way of Constantinople –Along the way the crusaders destroy just about anything in their way (parts of Europe, Constantinople, the Holy Land) –By 1099 the Crusaders reached Jerusalem and placed it under siege –In a couple of weeks they took the city, butchered every Muslim, Jew and even some Christians in the city –Jerusalem was now in the hands of the Christians

14 The Crusades What happened afterwards What happened afterwards –The Crusaders established what was called the Latin Kingdoms –These kingdoms served as the military and political strongholds for the Christians in the Middle East –The allowed knights and nobles to  Own land  Become involved in trade and become rich

15 The Crusades The Latin Kingdoms The Latin Kingdoms –The Crusaders were able to hold on to these Kingdoms for about 200 years however at a cost –The Crusaders would have to fight a series of Crusades against the Turks, Arabs and other Muslims who wanted to drive the Christians out –When the Muslims were successful in taking back land from the Crusaders then the Crusaders would start another Crusade

16 The Crusades The Second Crusade ( ) The Second Crusade ( ) –One of the Latin Kingdoms falls to the Muslims

17 The Crusades The Third Crusade ( ) The Third Crusade ( ) –Saladin the military leader of the Muslims captures Jerusalem in 1187 Saladin is probably the greatest military leader the Muslims have ever known Saladin is probably the greatest military leader the Muslims have ever known Richard the Lion-Heart of England, Philip II Augustus of France and Frederick I Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire join together to fight Saladin Richard the Lion-Heart of England, Philip II Augustus of France and Frederick I Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire join together to fight Saladin

18 The Crusades The Third Crusade The Third Crusade –Richard does some nasty things while fighting the Muslims  Killing every Muslim man, woman, and child in Acre –Both Richard and Saladin face off in a series of battles –Neither can gain the advantage on the other –The Crusade ends in a stalemate –Muslims keep Jerusalem but Christians were free to visit the city

19 The Crusades Later Crusades Later Crusades –From 1200 to about 1291 a series of very unsuccessful Crusades are launched against the Muslims and even Christians –The 4 th Crusade ( )  This Crusade targeted the Christian city of Constantinople instead of the Muslims  (Crusaders were now just looking for land and wealth and saw a way to obtain it in Constantinople) –The ideals of Chivalry were dying out and knights and nobles were killing whom ever and taking whatever they wanted

20 The Crusades Later Crusades Later Crusades –In the 1200’s there was Children’s Crusade were young boys and girls went off to fight the Muslims –Guess just how this ended up? Lots of children captured and enslaved –Crusaders attacked Egypt and North Africa with little success The Turks The Turks –During this same time the Turks were able to drive the Christians out of the Latin Kingdoms –Most of the early crusaders who had established the kingdoms had died or went home – In 1291 the last outpost for the Christians at Acre fell –Christian presence in the Middle east was abandoned –The Crusades were over

21 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades Effects of the Crusades –Long term effect that still last today  Muslims and Christians hate each other  It caused a greater division between both religions that is still played out in the word today –Effect on Europeans  Greater understanding of the world and the lands to the east –Out of this will come the need to further explore, open trade routes and develop kingdoms in other parts of the world –Europeans were becoming greedy and wanted the wealth of the world

22 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades Effects of the Crusades –Increase in knowledge  Europeans and Muslims were able to exchange new technologies –The Muslims learned masonry and fortress building from the Europeans  Europeans learned about –Medicine, sailing technology, literature –The Crusades ended the Middle Ages and ushered in the Renaissance

23 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades Effects of the Crusades –The Crusades were not only a religious endeavor but also a political and social movement –The early crusades were more religious –The later crusades were more based on greed –While the crusades were based on a conflict of religions it became a contest of who was superior

24 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades Effects of the Crusades –The Crusades were violent and bloody,  Death, rape, pillage, slavery  Chivalry was non existent on both sides –The religious devout were willing to die for their religion

25 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades Effects of the Crusades –Brought Europe into the sphere of Eastern Mediterranean –Interaction of trade, new ideas, and rediscovery of the ancient past which had been preserved by the Byzantine and Muslim Empires

26 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades Effects of the Crusades –The most important impact or effect of the Crusades is that conquest and expansion might fail it still results in cultural interaction or cultures that might not have otherwise interacted –This would cause Europe to leave the Middle Ages and enter the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration


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