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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 21 HAIRCOLORING."— Presentation transcript:


2 One of the most creative, challenging, and popular salon services
Haircoloring is One of the most creative, challenging, and popular salon services It is also the most lucrative !

3 Add: Haircoloring is both the art and science of changing the color of hair.

4 Why people color their hair Add to side bar: just the #’s
Unpigmented hair (graying) Book: Cover or blend gray

5 Book: Enhance an existing color
2. Self-image boost Book: Enhance an existing color 3. Experimental Book: create a fashion statement or statement of self-expression

6 Book: Correct unwanted tones
4. Artistic Book: Correct unwanted tones

7 Book: Accentuate a particular haircut
5. . Corrective Book: Accentuate a particular haircut Note: Either list can be used on the test, your choice

8 F Y I : “Chlorine green” hair is caused by copper deposits from the water, that grab onto the hair. Only very light hair shows this reaction. Use a demineralizing shampoo, like Alternate Action and place under a dryer or use baking soda and water to remove deposits.

9 Hair Facts Hair Structure
Knowing how products affect the hair will allow you to make the best product choices for your client. Hair Structure Quick review of the structure of the hair.

10 Q. List two points about the cortex.
Q. What is the outer most layer of the hair called? Q. What is the purpose of the cuticle? Q. List two points about the cortex. Q. How much of a role does the medula play in haircoloring?

11 Q. Why is texture, density and. porosity factors we must
Q. Why is texture, density and porosity factors we must consider when performing color services? Texture: individual hair strand Coarse, medium, fine Melanin is distributed differently-refer to Figure 21-3

12 Has average response to haircolor products
Fine hair texture Takes color faster Can look darker Medium hair texture Has average response to haircolor products

13 Can take longer to process
Coarse hair texture Can take longer to process

14 Density-hair per square inch
thin, medium, thick-dense Needs to be considered when applying haircolor Q. How would this matter, and what do we need to do?

15 Porosity-ability to absorb liquid
Porous hair accepts color faster ~ darker than expected end result Q. Explain the step needed to do the test for porosity

16 Resistant hair (low porosity) ~ requires more processing time
Normal porosity (average) ~ processes in an average amount of time Overporous (high) ~ takes color quickly ~ fades quickly

17 Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone
Q. What is the 1st thing Mrs. K and I do prior to creating a color formula?

18 Two types of melanin in the cortex:
Eumelanin-black and brown Pheomelanin-blond and red Natural hair color contains both (Mixed melanin)

19 Contributing Pigment Known as “undertone”, is the varying degrees of warmth exposed during permanent color or lightening process The darker the natural level,the more intense the contributing pigment

20 Haircoloring modifies this pigment to create new pigment
Must be taken into consideration before the haircolor selection is made Haircoloring modifies this pigment to create new pigment

21 Saturation, density, or concentration of a color
The Level System Level is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness Saturation, density, or concentration of a color

22 Level system *use to determine the lightness or darkness of colors Arranged on a scale of 1-1 0 -1 being the darkest (black) -10 being the lightest (pale blonde)

23 Add: Value-unit of measurement to evaluate lightness or darkness

24 Identifying Natural Level
First step in haircolor service Valuable tool-color wheel Use haircolor swatch book Demonstrate the four steps Read: Here’s a Tip

25 Natural Hair Color Levels
10-Lightest Bl. Natural Hair Color Levels (this is the number system Mrs. Kucas and I follow. Page 632 is a little different) 9- Lt. Blonde 8- Med. Blonde 7- Dk. Blonde 6- Lt. Brown 5- Med. Brown 4- Dk. Brown 3- V. Dk. Br 2- Black 1- Blue Black

26 Gray Hair Associated with aging ~ heredity Solid or blended
~ “salt and pepper” Requires special attention in formulating

27 Color Theory Color is the visible spectrum of light
Human eye only sees red, green, or blue, or other shades

28 Before applying color products
*have an understanding of color theory ***All are developed by primary and secondary color


30 A base color is the predominant tone of a color
Ex. Violet base color=cool result *minimizes unwanted yellow tones Blue-base haircolor=coolest results *minimizes orange tones

31 Add: Violet-green-blue=cool tones Yellow-orange-red=warm tones

32 *brunettes to light blondes
***Red-orange base *bright warm results ***Gold bases *brunettes to light blondes

33 The Law of Color Is a system for understanding color relationships When combining colors, you always get the same result from the same combination

34 Equal parts of: red and blue always =violet blue and yellow always=green red and yellow always=orange

35 Primary Colors Pure colors that cannot be created by combining other colors All colors are created from these three primaries…

36 Blue Primary Colors Red Yellow

37 Predominance of blue *cool colors Predominance of red and or yellow *warm colors Blue is the strongest and the only cool primary color *brings depth or darkness to any color

38 Red is the medium primary color
* Red added to blue-based colors ~ appear lighter Red added to yellow ~ become darker

39 All three primary colors present in equal proportions
Yellow is the weakest of the primary colors yellow added to other colors ~ lighter and brighter All three primary colors present in equal proportions * the color is brown

40 Secondary Colors Obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors Green=blue and yellow Orange=red and yellow Violet=blue and red

41 Primary and Secondary Colors
Refer to the color wheel

42 Tertiary Colors Intermediate color achieved by mixing a secondary color with its neighboring primary color on the color wheel in equal amounts

43 Blue-green Blue-violet Red-violet Red-orange Yellow-orange Yellow-green *test info*

44 Q. Why is it necessary to fully understand the law of color?
A. Natural-looking haircolor is made up of a combination of primary colors, secondary colors, and tertiary colors

45 Complementary Colors Are a primary and secondary color positioned opposite each other on the color wheel Complimentary color include blue and orange, red and green, yellow and violet and…

46 They neutralize each other
What do we mean neutralize each other? Complementary colors are used to: Neutralize or refine unwanted tones in the hair Help you choose the correct color *review reference guide page 635

47 Blue-orange=almost Halloween
Mrs. Kucas’ great idea It’s easy to remember the complimentary colors: Green-red=Christmas Blue-orange=almost Halloween Yellow-violet=Easter

48 Tone or Hue of Color Add: Describes the warmth or coolness of a color

49 Answers-which color to use for clients desired result
Tone or Hue of Color Answers-which color to use for clients desired result Warm, cool, or neutral (or tonality)

50 Warm tones look lighter *gold, orange, red, yellow Use with clients:
*auburn, amber, copper, strawberry, bronze Ex. Our tube says 6 RO=level 6 with red-orange tone Tell client: dark strawberry blonde

51 Cool tones look deeper *blue, green, and violet Use with clients: *smoky, ash, drab, or platinum Ex. 4B Level 4 brown with a blue tone

52 Natural tones (also called neutral tones) are warm tones
~ described as sandy or tan /162460_Full.jpg

53 Intensity-strength of a colors Add: tonality
Described as soft, medium, or strong Color intensifiers Add: color additives are tones added to a haircolor formula to intensify the results (show our intensifiers

54 Base color is the predominant tone of a color
Identified by a number and letter # indicates the level Letter indicates the tone Ex. 6G Level 6-dark blonde With a gold base

55 When selecting formula=know what tone the client likes and dislikes
*** client will say they do not want to see red-in many cases this would include gold (caramel) Neutral base colors are used to cover gray hair.

56 Types of Haircolor Four categories: Temporary Semipermanent
Demipermanent Permanent Non-oxidative Oxidative

57 Add next to nonoxidative:
Vegetable, flowers, herbs, salts of heavy metal (veg. tints, metallic dyes, compound dyes)

58 Patch test required for all, except temporary color
Q. What is the purpose of a patch test? Q. Is a patch test required prior to using lightener (bleach)? Q. What wording does the Cosmetology State Law give us that requires us to patch test prior to aniline derivative tints?

59 Click on “a severe reaction to hair dye following sensitization from PPD temporary tattoo”

60 All haircolor products and lighteners contain:
~ a developer (oxidizing agent) ~an alkalizing ingredient

61 Alkalizing ingredient-ammonia or an ammonia substitute is to:
Raise cuticle of the hair fiber so tint can penetrate the cortex Increase the penetration of tints within the hair (oxidation reaction) Trigger the lightening action of the peroxide

62 The next paragraph said differently:
The alkalizing agent: - opens the cuticle - the peroxide enters into the cortex - breaks up the melanin (lighteners) - permanent color does this to a lesser degree, then replaces it with new color

63 Temporary Color Neutralize yellow hair or unwanted tones
Q. What tone would we use for this? Q. What happens when a tone (like blue) is used and there is no complimentary tone (yellow) ? Just ask Mr. Herr !!!!!

64 Top: Several applications of lightener, then toned with violet
Bottom: used blue to counter the yellow

65 Pigment molecules are large
*prevent penetration the cuticle layer Coating action only Removed by shampooing Nonoxidation color Physical change not a chemical change

66 No patch test required Temporary haircolors are available in a variety of colors and products: Color rinses applied weekly to shampooed hair, then styled Q. If this product only coats the hair, how can it last for a week?

67 Colored mousses and gels
Hair mascara/crayons for dramatic effects (or to hide gray regrowth)

68 Spray-on haircolor Color-enhancing shampoos: -brighten
-impart slight color -eliminate unwanted tones

69 Add all: Coating- residue left on the outside of the hair shaft Made from preformed dyes Certified colors-standards for purity-FDA approved

70 Semipermanent Haircolor
Nonoxidation color Not mixed with peroxide Last through several shampoos, *depending on the hair’s porosity Partially penetrate the hair shaft *stain the cuticle


72 *fades with each shampoo Lasts about 4-6 shampoos
(used to be 4-6 weeks) Q. What do you think caused this change?

73 Does not lighten the hair
Only deposits color Does not lighten the hair ***No significant color change

74 Does not require maintenance of new growth Far more gentle
Requires a patch test Used right out of the bottle

75 *opens the cuticle for color penetration
Add: (in very small writing) no ammonia *if mixed with an activator develops the color pigments within the formula (not in hair) *swells the cortex *opens the cuticle for color penetration

76 Demipermanent Haircolor
No-lift deposit only haircolor ***Lasts longer than semi Add: penetrate the hair shaft Less alkaline *mixed with low volume developer

77 ADD: No ammonia or low ammonia formula
Uses alkalizing agents other than ammonia *oxidizing agents other than peroxide Not necessarily less damaging If milder, active ingredient is lower

78 Introduces client to color service Add: *vivid color results
*reverse highlighting Blend or cover gray Refreshes faded permanent color Color corrections Restoring natural color

79 Deepens or creates a change in tone
Usually used on cold shaft and ends during a regrowth touch-up Refreshes previously colored hair Available in: gel, cream, or liquid Requires a patch test

80 Lighten and deposit color at the same time *single process
Permanent Haircolor Lighten and deposit color at the same time *single process *more alkaline Mixed with a higher volume developer Used to match, lighten and cover gray

81 _2064_407...

82 ADD: ***Contains: ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxide Requires a patch test Contain uncolored dye precursors *very small *easily penetrate the hair shaft Called Aniline derivatives

83 Combined with peroxide forms larger, permanent tint molecules
Molecules are trapped in the cortex Cannot be easily shampooed out Lighten the natural color *permanent change

84 Add: Action- causes the hair shaft to swell and the cuticle to open Ammonia- a colorless pungent gas composed of hydrogen and nitrogen, it is used in the haircolor to swell the cuticle

85 Soap cap: Equal parts permanent color mixture and shampoo Use last 5 minutes Worked through hair to refresh ends


87 Removes natural pigment *through lightening
Permanent color: Best for covering gray hair Removes natural pigment *through lightening At the same time adds artificial color Results=natural-looking color



90 Add: High-lift tinting-single process, higher degree of lightening action and minimal amount of color deposit

91 Review the 4 haircolor categories:
Q. List the four categories of haircolor. Q. If the desired color result is to stain the cuticle layer which type of haircolor would you choose?

92 Q. What color product provides a coating for the hair?
Q. Which product will give me the most vivid color results? Q. What is happening to the hair during a permanent haircolor service?

93 Q. Out of the four categories. which require a patch test
Q. Out of the four categories which require a patch test prior to application? Q. Out of the four which would be good for unpigmented hair? Q. Which one causes a physical change in the hair shaft?

94 Natural and Metallic Haircolors
Not used in salons Include: natural, vegetable and metallic haircolors Gradual colors Repeated use creates a buildup *grayish or green cast

95 Natural/Vegetable Haircolors
Henna-obtained from leaves or bark of plants Does not lightening/lift Process can be lengthy and messy

96 Henna only available in clear, black,
Shade range is limited Henna only available in clear, black, chestnut, and auburn tones No chemical services can be performed over natural hair colors due to coating on the hair shaft (uneven or undesirable results can be expected)

97 Metallic Haircolors: Called gradual colors and progressive dyes Contain metal salts Change hair color gradually by: *progressive buildup *exposure to air *creating a dull, metallic appearance

98 Require daily application Marketed to men Unnatural-looking colors
Limited shade range

99 FYI: not needed on test Destroy sulfur-cross-links in the cortex-hair breakage or hair loss Metals interfere with PW and our other chemicals (tint)

100 FYI con’t Metals can be absorbed through the skin and reach dangerous levels in the body Users report: headaches, dermatitis reactions, facial swelling, & lead poisoning

101 If hydrogen peroxide or any. other chemical is added to a
If hydrogen peroxide or any other chemical is added to a metal salt it will melt the hair Read Caution page 639 Removal of metallic colors is difficult and not recommended

102 Test for Metallic Salts (pg. 583) *Needed for Chapter test*
In glass container, mix 1 ounce of 20 volume peroxide and 20 drops of 28% ammonia water. Cut a strand of the client’s hair, bind with tape, and immerse in the solution for 30 minutes Remove, towel dry, observe the strand

103 Hair with lead-lightens immediately
Silver-no reaction (other chemicals will not be able to penetrate the coating) Copper-hair will start to boil and will easily pull apart (other chemicals would severely damage or destroy the hair).

104 Other info to know for test:
Silver dyes fade to a green cast Lead dyes fade to a purple cast Copper dyes turn red

105 Hydrogen Peroxide Developers
Is an oxidizing agent *when mixed with an oxidation color *supplies oxygen gas to develop color molecules *creates a change in natural hair color

106 Volume: measures the concentration and strength of H2O2
pH between Others developers on market; peroxide is most common for haircolor Different forms-liquid and cream Volume: measures the concentration and strength of H2O2 Lower the volume=less lift is achieved

107 Higher volume=greater the lifting action
10,20,30,40 are used for proper lift and color development Store-cool, dark place

108 Add to side bar: 10 volume-deposit only *does not cause enough lift to consider 20 volume-one-two levels of lift 30 volume-two-three levels of lifts 40 volume-three-four levels of lift

109 Add: Stabilizers are added to prolong the life, appearance, and performance of product.


111 Not in book-need to know:
High-lift tint will allow you to achieve four levels of lift successfully. Many haircolor brands are mixed equal parts developer/tint. Ratio of 1:1 High-lift tints are a ratio of 1:2 *use 40 volume developer Tint Developer

112 H2O2 mixed with lightener begins to release oxygen
Lighteners Lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing the natural pigment H2O2 mixed with lightener begins to release oxygen Known as oxidation *happens within the cortex

113 To achieve a very pale blonde shade use a double-process application
Known as a two-step coloring Hair is prelightened, then the depositing color is applied Using a lightener-up to 90 minutes

114 Once hair is properly lightened, second step adds soft tone back to the hair
Called toning process Toners-very light shade palette to add tone to decolorized hair Demipermanent colors, Level 8-10 are also used as toners

115 Lighteners are also used to achieve:
Lighten the hair prior to application of a final color Lighten hair to a particular shade Brighten and lighten an existing shade

116 Q. What situation would cause us not to be able to achieve a blonde shade?
A. If client wants a color lighter than 4 shades of lift. Remember tint can only go up 4 levels.

117 jpg?size=57...

118 The Decolorizing Process
Lighten only certain parts of the hair Lighten dark natural or color- treated levels The Decolorizing Process Hair goes though different stages of color as it lightens Add: Stages-visible color change that natural hair goes through while being lightened

119 depends on how much pigment the hair has
the strength of the lightening product length of time it is processed goes through as many as 10 stages

120 Depicts how long it takes to lift thru the gold.

121 Allows the colorist to create the. exact degree of contributing
Allows the colorist to create the exact degree of contributing pigment needed for the final result First, the hair is decolorized to the appropriate level New color is applied to deposit the desired color

122 Lightening the hair to the correct. stage is essential to a beautiful,
Lightening the hair to the correct stage is essential to a beautiful, controlled, final haircoloring result. Q. If the client is a natural level 2 (very dark brown), and wants to have level 7 (medium blonde) full head of color, what level of decolorization will I need to get to for a successful color?

123 *Permanent haircolor products used primarily on prelightened
Toners *Semi-permanent *Demipermanent *Permanent haircolor products used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale and delicate colors *process up to 5 minutes

124 Not all hair will go through 10 stages of lightening
Each natural color starts at a different stage Goal: is to create the correct degree of contributing pigment as the foundation for the final haircolor result

125 Hair is never safely lifted past the pale yellow stage to white
Causes excessive damage to the hair strand Result: wet hair feels mushy and will stretch without returning to original length

126 When dry: hair is harsh and brittle
Often suffers breakage and will not accept toner properly Baby-blonde look (Marilyn Monroe/Madonna) can be achieved by lightening to a pale yellow and neutralizing the unwanted undertone (contributing pigment) with a toner


128 CONSULTATION Most critical First step in establishing a relationship with your client Client will communicate what she is looking for Listen carefully so you can make the appropriate haircolor recommendations


130 Allow sufficient time ensure a client’s satisfaction
***Have proper lighting, walls should be a neutral or white color Steps to include: Book client 15 minutes extra

131 Introduce yourself and welcome
them to the salon Offer a beverage Allow no interruptions 2. Have client fill out information card -hair history -tells what kind of color service client is looking for

132 -pay attention to client’s skin and eye color
-condition and length of hair, amount of gray 3. Look directly at client ask what they are thinking about doing with hair color


134 Ask leading questions Let them talk Your questions might include: Temporary or permanent change All over or highlights Conservative or dramatic

135 If you ask a client: do you want your color to whisper, talk or scream
If you ask a client: do you want your color to whisper, talk or scream? You will gain a clear picture of how they want to look, how much of a highlight, or how light/bold the color is to be. Describe what you would label your hair color as.

136 Use people’s hair from the media to help describe an effect
Add shine to your hair? 4. Recommend at least two different options 5. Review the procedure and application techniques


138 -cost of service and follow-up maintenance
-several steps may be needed to achieve result -may not be able to afford it, have a more economical back-up solution ready

139 6. Be honest, do not promise the world
-corrective color solutions take time, let client know what you can do today and how many visits it will take to achieve desired look 7. Gain approval from the client

140 8. Start the hair color service
9. Educate and inform client about home care, products, rebooking, what shampoo and conditioner is needed, how many weeks to the next service 10. Fill out client haircolor card Read both Caution Boxes and the Focus On

141 Release Statement Q. What statement can be made about release statements in PA.? Q. Name two haircolor safety precautions that will prevent injury to a client. A. Patch test and do not tint eyelashes or eyebrows with haircolor.

142 Formulation: Four basic questions that must always be asked when formulating a haircolor ***Drape the client for a chemical service, and try to answer these four questions, then give us the answers when we come to help you formulate. **Need to know all four questions for the test

143 What is the natural level? Is there any gray hair?
What is the client’s desired level and tone? Are contributing pigments (undertones) revealed? What colors should be mixed to get the desired result and what volume of developer?

144 :

145 Formulate with both lift and deposit in mind
Formulation con’t: Combination of the shade and the volume of H2O2 determines the lifting ability of a haircolor Formulate with both lift and deposit in mind

146 Add: Formulation: art of mixing to create a blend or balance of two or more ingredients.

147 Higher lifting formulas may. not cancel the warmth of a
Higher lifting formulas may not cancel the warmth of a client’s natural contributing pigment Volume of H2O2 mixed with the haircolor product will also influence the lift and deposit Ex. Bright reds

148 Q. Can I mix the color of the. hair swatch that the client
Q. Can I mix the color of the hair swatch that the client showed me she liked? Why or why not? Q. What will help me to determine the tone that will be needed? Q. When you have a color client, what will you do before calling Mrs.K or myself over?

149 Mixing Permanent Colors:
Method of mixing is determined by the type of application you are using Applied by either bowl and brush or applicator bottle Always follow manufacturer’s directions

150 Applicator bottle: Large enough to hold color and developer,
enough room to shake to mix the product For ratio 1:1-pour 1 ounce developer into bottle, add 1 ounce of color, mix Q. What is another way to say ratio 1:1? Equal parts

151 For a ratio 1:2-one part high lift tint to two parts developer, or
Ex.-1 ounce tint to 2 ounces developer Q. What is another way to say this ratio? Double peroxide This is the ratio for high-lift blonde colors

152 *On test* Let’s talk mixing Matrix Socolor 3 ounce tube 2 1/2 2 1 1/2
Most brands are 2 ounce tubes 1 Let’s talk mixing 1/2

153 Brush and bowl: Use nonmetallic bowl!!!!! Measure developer into bowl Add color/colors in appropriate proportions Use applicator brush, stir to blend

154 To determine any allergy or sensitivity to the mixture
Patch test info: To determine any allergy or sensitivity to the mixture Also called *predisposition test *hypersensitivity test *sensitivity test *allergy test Must be given 48 hours prior to each application of an aniline derivative tint Add all three:

155 Must be the same tint brand and color that will be used on the hair
Negative skin test/or result- shows no sign of inflammation * color may be safely applied

156 Positive result-shows redness,. rash, welt, swelling, itching,
Positive result-shows redness, rash, welt, swelling, itching, burning, blisters, open sores and breathing difficulties-do not use this product on your client ***You can patch test with a different brand of color, however I would expect them to be allergic to that as well.

157 *Read both Caution Boxes
Result of using permanent haircolor on the eyebrows. Blindness may occur. (this client did a 48 hour patch test and it was negative) *Read both Caution Boxes

158 The ingredient that people are allergic to is:
Add: para-phenylenediamine or PPD. ***There are other ingredients that clients could be sensitive to as well, but this is the most common one. ***About 1 in 100 react to haircolor. ***I have seen one case in 26 years

159 Q. Does it matter what level of developer. is used in the patch test
Q. Does it matter what level of developer is used in the patch test? Why or why not? Q. What will determine how long the patch test is to remain on the client’s skin? Q. What must we anticipate from a higher volume of developer than 20, when mixed with a level 6 haircolor? Q. We know that we will pull more orange and red, so what complimentary tone must we include in the formula?

160 Haircolor Applications
Follow a prescribed procedure Makes for greatest efficiency and the safest, most satisfactory results

161 Preliminary Strand Test
Once formula is created-try it on a small strand of hair This will tell you how the hair will react to the formula and how long to process The strand test is performed after the client is prepared for the coloring service.

162 Semi-permanent Haircolor
Temporary Colors: Apply to manufacturer’s directions Semi-permanent Haircolor Deposit only Color applied over color always creates a darker color

163 Porosity determines how well the products “take”
Can build up on the ends Strand test will determine the formula and processing time

164 ***Strand test prior to rinsing out tints and lighteners
Q. Explain the difference between a preliminary strand test and a strand test.

165 Demipermanent Haircolor
Great way to introduce client to color Enhance their natural color Application is similar to semipermanent, FMD

166 Gray hair: special challenges
Depth of color may appear too harsh Allow for some brightness and warmth Select a shade one level lighter *more natural-looking result

167 Previous color service-greater degree of porosity
Take into consideration when formulating and applying

168 FYI (whole page) Single Process tints: Usually contain a lightening agent, shampoo, an aniline derivative tint, & an alkalizing agent to activate the added peroxide Usually uses 20 volume developer When using other volumes of developer, the results will be altered

169 Lightens and deposits color in a single application
Single-Process Permanent Haircolor Lightens and deposits color in a single application Includes: Virgin tint going lighter Tint retouch Prelightening or presoftening is not required

170 Single-process Color Retouch:
*use a glaze (nonammonia) to add shine and tone the hair shaft and ends 1. Retouch the new growth *Do not overlap *causes breakage and a “line of demarcation”-visible line separating colored hair from new growth.

171 Done for effect

172 2. Process color according to your analysis and strand test results
3. Refresh faded ends * no-lift deposit-only haircolor *rinse the color through the ends, shampoo/condition Add: Shampoo two times for all lighteners and color services

173 Q. Explain why we would see a line of demarcation.
When the color is applied to porous hair (previously tinted) it will usually take a deeper tone than the new growth will, leaving you with a line of two colors. Add: Line of Demarcation-obvious difference between two colors on the hair shaft

174 Double-Process Haircolor:
Process of hair lightening Known as bleaching or decolorizing Diffusion of the natural hair color or artificial haircolor from the hair

175 Double-process Haircolor: Dramatically lighter color
Prelightened first To achieve pale or cool colors use double-process application Decolorize with lightener *then deposit desired tone


177 Modern day accelerating machines to process perms and color faster

178 Known as double process high- lift coloring and two-step blonding
1. Hair is prelightened first 2. Then toned Prelightening lifts the natural pigments, before the toner *wider range of haircolor possibilities

179 By prelightening the hair to the. desired color you create a perfect
By prelightening the hair to the desired color you create a perfect foundation for longer- lasting red colors that avoid muddiness and stay true to tone Add: Shampoo all color/lightener services 2 times

180 Prelightener is applied the same way as a regular lightening treatment
Once reached desired shade, lightly shampoo, acidify and towel dry Do a strand test to ensure the results of the toner Apply color/toner in the usual manner Read Focus On and Caution Box


182 Choose from oil, cream and powder
Using Lighteners Choose from oil, cream and powder Oil/cream: on-the-scalp lighteners Powder: off-the-scalp lighteners

183 On-the-scalp lighteners: *cream and oil, some powder*
Easy to apply Oil-mildest *one or two levels of color lift is desired Used professionally to lighten dark facial and body hair

184 Cream *strong enough for high-lift blonding Gentle on scalp Conditioning agents that give some protection to hair and scalp Thickeners give more control during application

185 Do not run or drip, overlapping is prevented during retouch services
May be mixed with activators (boosters, protinators, accelerators) in the form of dry crystals. ON TEST Activators *powdered persulfate salts *increase lifting power

186 More activators, the lighter the hair
Up to 3 for on-the-scalp Up to 4 off-the-scalp Increase scalp irritation

187 Powdered Off-the-scalp lighteners:
Quick lighteners Strong, fast acting powder Dry out more quickly *cover with plastic cap Do not run or drip Expand and spread out

188 Time factors: Darker the hair, more melanin, takes longer Influenced by porosity, lightening agent can reach the cortex faster Tone-more red, more difficult to achieve pale delicate shades Ash blondes are difficult to achieve

189 Strength of product affects the timing
Heat leads to quicker timing ***use infrared lamps Stage of lightening must be observed to avoid excessive lift If lightened beyond desired foundation toner may not develop properly in the hair shaft

190 When this occurs, the toner shade. may “grab” the base color, giving
When this occurs, the toner shade may “grab” the base color, giving an ashy, cool tone Preliminary Strand Test *determines processing time *condition of hair *end result

191 Watch strand for any discoloration or breakage
Recondition if needed prior to toning Carefully record all data on client’s card If test shows hair is not light enough, increase strength of mixture and/or processing time

192 If strand is too light, decrease the. strength of mixture and/or
If strand is too light, decrease the strength of mixture and/or decrease the processing time Patch test done prior to application of a toner ***Save time-strand test and patch test the same day Read both Caution boxes

193 Lightener retouch: New growth
*part of the hair shaft between the scalp and the hair that has been colored Applied only to the new growth Q. Name the application that must be used for a successful retouch on this client.

194 Use cream lightener for retouch
Less irritating to the scalp Helps prevent overlapping *overlapping can cause severe breakage or lines of demarcation Consult record card *lightener formula, timing and other matters

195 Using Toners Primarily used on prelightened hair *achieve pale, delicate colors Requires double-process application -application of lightener -application of toner *no-lift deposit only

196 *color that remains in the hair after lightening
Contributing pigment *color that remains in the hair after lightening (foundation) Achieve the correct foundation *to create the right color and degree of porosity required for proper toner development Contributing pigment needed for a light red color

197 Manufacturer’s will include. literature recommending the
Manufacturer’s will include literature recommending the foundation necessary to achieve the desired color Paler the desired color the lighter the foundation Overlightened hair will “grab” the base of the toner

198 Underlightened hair will. appear to have more red,
Underlightened hair will appear to have more red, yellow, or orange than the intended color Do not prelighten past the pale yellow stage This creates overporous hair that will have inadequate amounts of natural pigment left in the cortex for the toner to bond to

199 Refer to law of color to select a toner
*neutralize or compliment Toner Application Patch test required/***strand test Proceed with application only if the patch test is negative and the hair is in good condition

200 Speed and accuracy in applying is important
*determines whether you get good color results Procedure-check with instructor Q. What would your first instinct be for the procedure?

201 Special effects haircoloring:
Any technique that involves partial lightening or coloring *pure fashion techniques Versatile and exciting _f520.jpg

202 Strategically placing light and dark colors in the hair
Highlighting involves coloring strands lighter than natural color * illusion of depth

203 /j1_medium.jpeg

204 Light colors appear larger Makes details more visible
Reverse highlighting or low lighting colors strands darker than the natural color Contrasting dark areas recede, appear smaller Make detail less visible

205 Possibilities are limited only by your imagination
As you expand your knowledge, you will become more creative Possibilities are limited only by your imagination Techniques for highlighting Cap Foil Balayage or free-form

206 Cap technique: Involves pulling clean, DRY strands of hair through a perforated cap with a thin plastic or metal needle Comb to remove tangles # of strands pulled determines the amount of highlighting or lowlighting

207 Small # pulled effect will be subtle
Noticeable effect when many are pulled though Caution: the density of the client’s hair must be considered

208 For high/lowlighting-apply lightener or any haircolor
FYI **when desired shade is reached -rinse product off of cap (if lightener is used, cool water) -add small amount of shampoo -untie and slide cap off -wet down all hair -shampoo twice, condition Do this except if a toner is needed after the lightener

209 *rinse lightener off of cap with cool water
FYI To tone: *rinse lightener off of cap with cool water * add small amount of shampoo * cleanse off bleach * rinse out with cap on * towel dry hair thoroughly *dry with blow dryer * add toner and process. When toner is finished proceed as before.

210 Go under cap to erase a pull that is too thick
***use caps only on shorter hair/never long hair

211 Foil Technique: Involves coloring selected strands of hair by slicing or weaving out sections * placing them on foil or plastic wrap *applying lightener or permanent haircolor, and sealing them in the foil or plastic Use permanent haircolor for softer looks/red HL

212 Placing foil in hair is an art
Takes practice and discipline Slicing-take 1/8th” section of hair by making a straight part at the scalp Position hair over the foil Apply lightener/color Carefully close the foil while preventing the foil from slipping

213 Fold all foils on a diagonal line to prevent foils from slipping.
Show movie Be sure the top is no longer or shorter than the parting

214 Weaving-selected strands are. picked up from a narrow
Weaving-selected strands are picked up from a narrow (1/8th”) section of hair use a zigzag motion of the comb Place hair over foil Apply lightener or color Carefully close the foil while preventing the foil from slipping

215 Many patterns that foils can be placed in the hair
Face-frame, half-head, three quarter head, full-head To produce different highlights in different portions of the head


217 Apply product to the regrowth only-not the entire strand
Foil retouch: Apply product to the regrowth only-not the entire strand

218 Balayage technique: Or free-form, involves painting of a lightener (usually powder lightener) directly onto clean, styled hair Applied with tint brush or a tail comb from base to ends around the head Extremely subtle/used to draw attention to the surface of the hair or…

219 Very bold effect done on blonde hair…/s320/baliage.jpg Will look “sun kissed”

220 Toning overhighlighted and dimensionally colored hair:
When hair is decolorized to the desired level *toner may not be necessary If a cool tonality is desired, use a toner to cancel any undesirable yellow contributing pigment

221 An oxidative toner will add color to the highlighted strands
* it might also causing a slight amount of lift to the natural, or pigmented hair ***Result may be uneven tonality *warmth brought out Strand test to ensure best results

222 Avoiding untreated hair options:
Use a nonoxidative toner *no ammonia -no developer (thus no lift) Is gentler on the scalp and hair

223 Semipermanent color can be used (deposit/no lift)
Always check with the manufacturer’s color chart for the base color of your chosen toner, to ensure that when the toner combines with the contributing pigment, gives you the exact tone you want

224 Use a demipermanent haircolor
*deposit only without ammonia Lasts longer than temporary or semipermanent toner

225 Slight change in shade is desired
Highlighting Shampoo Prepared by combining permanent haircolor, hydrogen peroxide, and shampoo Slight change in shade is desired *Or when a client’s hair processes very rapidly

226 Highlights the hair’s natural color in a single application
No patch test is required ****Other: Mixture of shampoo and hydrogen peroxide Natural color is slightly lightened No patch test required Follow manufacturer’s directions

227 Special problems in haircolor/corrective coloring
Each haircoloring service is unique and can present unique challenges Complete client consultation and analysis of hair is critical

228 Strand tests *satisfactory final results Even the most skilled colorist will occasionally have a problem that could not be predicted

229 Gray hair: Challenges and Solutions
Gray, white, and salt and pepper hair all have characteristics that present unique coloring challenges Gray hair can turn orange if lightener is not processed long enough

230 Gray hair with a yellow cast is caused by:
Yellowed Hair: Gray hair with a yellow cast is caused by: smoking medication Sun exposure hair sprays and styling aids

231 Lighteners and tint removers can help remove yellow discoloration
Can be overpowered (neutralized) by the deposit of violet-based colors Add: Discoloration-development of undesired shades through chemical reactions Q. What is the problem when we see someone with blue or violet hair? (Mr. Herr’s blue haired ladies)

232 Blue-violet toner was used Blue-violet toner was used

233 Formulating For Gray Hair:
Accepts the level of the color applied Level 9 or higher may not give complete coverage (not enough pigment) Add: Coverage-ability of a product to color unpigmented , white, or other colors of the hair Level 7 or darker will cover better, can be used for pastel & blonde tones

234 Q. What effect would a lighter color have on this client?
Before and after: Lowlights in gray hair Q. What effect would a lighter color have on this client?

235 For 80-100% gray-blonde range is better
Selected color can be warm or cool depending on skin, eye color and preference Q. What theory can you state about why the hair changes to gray? A. As we age skin, eye color and hair lose pigment/part of aging process

236 Salt and pepper (low percentage of gray)
*color on color will always make a darker tone To compensate: use a shade 2 levels lighter than the natural dark hair

237 Always strand test Follow the chart-table 21-5 and manufacturer’s product color chart Take into account client’s: *personality *personal preferences *amount of gray and it’s location

238 Location: -majority gray in the front section -formulate on percentage of gray hair the client sees -hair that surrounds the face influences the client’s self-image

239 Tips for Achieving gray Coverage:
Level 7 medium-blonde or deeper 20 vol. developer Process 45 minutes Add neutral or neutral (warm tone) in percentages that follow High-lift blonde will not cover gray hair Use Level 7 then add highlights

240 Presoftening: Gray hair can be resistant Raises the cuticle *allows better penetration of color Acts like a stain

241 Presoftener is applied, processed, and removed
Then haircolor is applied Allow to process 15 minutes or FMD While presoftening the resistant areas, mix and apply final formula to the rest of the head

242 ***To presoften: Mix according to manufacturer’s directions Apply to most resistant areas first Process room temperature minutes/FMD Wipe color off gently with towel to remove

243 Next, apply desired level and tone to achieve end results
Or use Mrs. Mandato’s “Primer” Chemistry is different, this is not a presoftening technique In clinic, when one of us is working with you use their technique, learn both, then you decide which to use

244 Rules for Effective Color Correction
Color may not come out as expected Problems can be corrected Q. What is the main reason this color needs correcting. Determine what tone would be better and why. / main_Full.jpg

245 /disaster-main_Full.jpg

246 Keep in mind: Do not panic Determine the nature of the problem Determine what caused the problem Develop a solution Always take one step at a time

247 6. Never guarantee an exact result
7. Always strand test for accuracy Damaged Hair: Blow-drying, wind harsh shampoos, and chemical services affect the condition of the hair

248 Coating compounds: *hairspray *styling agents *some conditioners can block color penetration ***Heavy coatings/shampoo and dry hair under dryer for better results

249 Hair is considered damaged with one or more of:
Rough texture Overporous condition Brittle and dry

250 Susceptible to breakage No elasticity
Becomes spongy and matted when wet Color fades or grabs too dark

251 Any of these conditions can create
Any of these conditions can create problems during tinting, lightening, PW, or hair relaxing treatments Give reconditioning treatments prior to, and after the application of these chemical processes

252 conditioner that deposits protein, oils, and moisture rich ingredients
Tips for damaged hair: Use a penetrating conditioner that deposits protein, oils, and moisture rich ingredients Complete each chemical service with a low pH finishing rinse

253 Q. What do we use here that is an acidic finishing rinse?
Q. What effect will Reginal have in the hair? Postpone any further chemical services until hair is reconditioned

254 Schedule client for between- service conditioning
Recommend retail products for use at home to prepare for the next service Q. If the damage to the client’s hair is your fault, do you charge for conditioning treatments or home care products? If client’s fault, same Q?

255 Fillers: Equalize porosity
***Can be ready-made by manufacturer or are prepared by mixing haircolor and conditioner

256 Conditioner fillers and color fillers Conditioner fillers
Two types: Conditioner fillers and color fillers Conditioner fillers *recondition damaged, overly porous hair *equalize porosity Apply in a separate procedure or immediately prior to color application

257 Uniform contributing pigment
Color fillers Equalize porosity Deposit color Uniform contributing pigment Use no-lift deposit only haircolor (demipermanent)

258 Advantages: Deposit color to faded ends and hair shaft Help hair to hold color Prevents streaking and dull appearance Add: Faded-to loose color through exposure to the elements, or other factors

259 Prevents off-color results
Produces more uniform, natural-looking color in a tint Produces uniform color when doing a tint back

260 Selecting the Correct Color Filler
All three primary colors must be present *looks natural Ex. Blonde hair to Brown: Yellow Blue orange-red is needed

261 To correct unwanted haircolor:
*use the complementary color that is missing Yellow blonde hair *corrected with violet Orange blonde hair *corrected with blue Adding blue to yellow hair *makes green

262 Haircolor Tips for Redheads
Exciting and fun Fading common problem Artificial pigment within the hair shaft continues to oxidize and fade ***Use lower volume developer to prevent fading and brassiness


264 Tips: To create warm coppery reds *red orange base color To create hot fiery reds *red-violet or true red colors After hair has been colored with permanent haircolor *use no-lift deposit only on hair shaft and ends

265 If gray hair *add ½ to 1 ounce of neutral/natural color ***gray hair will pick up the pure base of the color, your results could be bright orange or bright pink

266 To brighten: *use soap cap *equal parts shampoo and remaining color before rinsing

267 Haircolor Tips for Brunettes:
Avoid orange or brassy tones *use cool blue base Add: Red, orange, or gold tones use “drabber” to reduce red or gold highlights Avoid unwanted brassy tones *do not lighten more than 2 levels above natural color

268 Add 1 ounce neutral/natural color to cover gray
Highlights in brunettes *deep or caramel colored *less maintenance than


270 FYI Special effects highlighting
Tone on tone Reverse highlighting Scrunching Shoe-shine Balayaging Color mapping Twisted highlights *on hair *on foil

271 Color mapping

272 Q. How much money would a. salon quote as a price for a
Q. How much money would a salon quote as a price for a client that enters the salon with green hair? A. Never quote a price unless you have strand tested each step. Problems can still arise, so I recommend that you give yourself a safety net and say “corrective hair color starts at $_____”.

273 Q. How much time will you tell. your client that a corrective
Q. How much time will you tell your client that a corrective haircolor service will take?

274 Haircolor Tips for Blondes:
Popular, profitable, fun Possibilities are endless Lightening brown to blonde *underlying unwanted warm tones

275 Double-process blonde *pale blonde results
Covering gray *use Level 7 or darker Double-process blonde *pale blonde results If high-lift blondes are used on Level 4 or below *results too warm or brassy

276 If highlights become too blonde *lowlights or deeper strands foiled in

277 Common Haircolor Solutions
Refresh faded color *demipermanent *stay within two levels of your formula *apply all over-process up to 10 minutes

278 Green cast: *build up of minerals ~well water ~chlorine *remove the mineral buildup *apply demipermanent color to neutralize unwanted color Add: “drab” describes no red or gold.

279 Overall Haircolor is Too light:
Result of incorrect formulation Apply no-lift haircolor one-two levels darker

280 Overall Color is Too Dark:
Add: 1st try Dawn dish detergent to fade or spot lightening Determine how much color needs to be removed Use haircolor remover Process 10 minutes

281 Designed to remove artificial pigment
Once achieved desired color, rinse and shampoo

282 What steps will be needed to achieve the natural haircolor?
Tint back: What steps will be needed to achieve the natural haircolor?

283 Restoring Blonde to Natural Haircolor
***called Tint Back Can be tricky Client may not like it *will look dark / main_Full.jpg

284 1st soften new growth *level 6 violet base/20 vol *apply to scalp *process 30 minutes, rinse Next, *apply no-lift deposit only glaze -1 oz. Level 8 -1 oz. Level 9 red-orange *to all lightened hair -not to scalp area -process 20 minutes, rinse, shampoo, towel dry

285 *no-lift deposit only glaze *2 oz. Level 6
Finally *no-lift deposit only glaze *2 oz. Level 6 *apply scalp to ends *process 20 minutes -check every 5 minutes


287 Haircoloring Safety Precautions
*** need 5 for the test Give patch test Do not apply if abrasions are present Do not apply if metallic or compound tint is present Do not brush hair prior to tint- can be picked, avoid scalp

288 Read and follow manufacturer’s directions
Use cleaned and disinfected applicator bottles, brushes, combs, and towels Protect clothing with a chemical drape Do strand test

289 Only use glass or plastic to mix product
Do not mix tint/ lightener before ready to use; discard leftover product Wear gloves Do not allow color to get in the client’s eyes

290 Do not overlap tint or lightener
Use mild shampoo Always wash hands before and after service Read Caution and Focus On

291 FYI Haircoloring offers:
*opportunity to exercise your creative impulses *will bring great pleasure to your clients *enjoy and appreciate all the learning you need to do, now and in the future

292 and formulations constantly change *keep learning new techniques
*techniques, fashions, and formulations constantly change *keep learning new techniques


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