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Colonial Character/Dissent

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Presentation on theme: "Colonial Character/Dissent"— Presentation transcript:

1 Colonial Character/Dissent



4 Chesapeake (Southern Colonies)
Jamestown 1607 Founded by Virginia Company of London Expedition led by Capt. John Smith Rocky beginnings Built in a swamp (malaria) Food shortages Conflicts with local Indians Founded with sole intent of making money Gold (not there) Greed of early settlers—”no work no eat policy” Nearly goes under Savior: tobacco


6 Chesapeake (Southern Colonies)
The nature of tobacco Requirements: Fertile soil (abundant) Large acreage plantations (abundant) Large labor supply (scarce) New population demographics Indentured servants “Headright” system Slave labor “Triangular trade”


8 Chesapeake (Southern Colonies)
Religious affiliation: Anglican (loosely) Crown colony Colonial government Legislature: House of Burgesses First colonial legislature Popularly elected representatives Relatively small electorate (property qualifications) Governor William Berkley Appointed by the King Often at the mercy of legislature “Benign Neglect”: English lawmakers/nobility chose to ignore colonial affairs during early years of colonies

9 Plymouth/Massachusetts Bay
Founded by the Separatist Puritans (Pilgrims) Sailed on the Mayflower Sign Mayflower Compact (Constitution like document) Massachusetts Bay 1630 Founded by Puritans (not separatists!!) Lead by John Winthrop Founded as a religious refuge/model (City Upon A Hill) Demographically different then Chesapeake Migrated as families Planned on a long term settlement Early emphasis on religion


11 Plymouth/Massachusetts Bay
Established small town based around a central church Extreme ties between church and local government Town meetings took place in churches Only church members could vote Church members had documented religious experiences All town residents paid taxes (collected by the church) Local ministers/wealthy families held primary power Led to dissent Importance placed on education 1647 Massachusetts passes first public education law in America Requires a schoolhouse/teacher in towns with people

12 Plymouth/Massachusetts Bay
Economy Original founders believed that government should provide economic restraint (anti greed) Hard rocky soil prevented large scale farming Subsistence farming of diverse crops Trading/Fishing/Manufacture rapidly become dominant industries Abundance of raw materials Natural harbors Proximity to England First glimpses of sectionalism

13 Plymouth/Massachusetts Bay
Rapid Population Growth Longer life expectancy then Chesapeake Balanced demographics Lack of religious fervor/conviction Loss of Puritan spirit in New England Half Way Covenant First Great Awakening Attempt to revitalize Puritan congregations Lead figure Jonathan Edwards Successes: Growth of religion in America Expansion of religious sects Birth of American colleges (seminaries)


15 Middle Colonies Established by a diverse group of people
Trace to early Dutch/Scandinavian settlers Diverse residents (< ½ Dutch in New Netherlands) Dutch were tolerant of other religious groups Primarily fur traders Unusual relationship with Native Americans Colonies acquired by England Most of the land given by Charles II to his brother James II (Duke of York) Attracts a number of wealthy British settlers Mix with established residents Colonies of New York and New jersey formed

16 Middle Colonies Quakers
Persecuted and despised religious group in England Proprietor William Penn is given land by Charles II Becomes colony of Pennsylvania

17 Colonial Conflicts/Dissent
Native American problems British refused to live alongside Native American population Unlike Spanish, create model for future colonists Native American culture is never assimilated in U.S. British saw Indians as savages Few attempts even to spread religion Leads to a series of wars Powhatan Wars (Virg.) Pequot War (Mass.) King Philip’s War (Mass.)

18 Colonial Conflicts/Dissent
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Virginia was suffering from reduced tobacco prices and a shortage of available land Touched off a conflict with Indians threatening Gov. Berkley’s lucrative fur trade Allows Nathaniel Bacon proposed to lead an army to wipe out Indians Bacon slaughters peaceful band of Indians Berkley calls Bacon back Bacon refuses Bacon leads his troops against Jamestown Reveals deep social tensions between classes Unintended consequence: increases slave trade


20 Colonial Conflicts/Dissent
Early Puritan Dissent Roger Williams Strongly opposed tight bond between church and state Lead a group of followers to Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson Opposed Calvinistic view of predestination Believed individual could achieve salvation through direct contact with God Beliefs threatened power of the church Each was successful in fragmenting early Puritan church Early colonial society was marked by class conflicts


22 Big Question How do the differences in colonial regions guarantee the development of sectionalism?

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