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CHAPTER 2 The American Colonies Emerge

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1 CHAPTER 2 The American Colonies Emerge
Plymouth Rock

2 An English Settlement at Jamestown
Section 2 An English Settlement at Jamestown The first permanent English settlement in North America is founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. -English colonies emerge in Virginia and develop into the present states of the southern U.S. Virginia-Southern Colony NEXT


4 The European Colonies

5 An English Settlement at Jamestown
1st permanent English settlement in North America was Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 Joint Stock companies – investors joined together to raise funds to establish colonies Virginia Company granted charter by King James I of England to start colony John Smith becomes leader of colony -Area was named Virginia after Queen Elizabeth I of England by Sir Walter Raleigh -The first permanent English settlement in North America was founded at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. -The Jamestown settlement funded by the Virginia Company—a joint-stock company-- and is granted a charter in 1606 to settle the area by King James I of England. A charter is an official permit. --The Virginia Company’s 3 ships (Susan Constant, Discovery, and Godspeed) brought 150 passengers to Virginia in April 1607. -The settlement is led be John Smith and it nearly failed b/c starvation and disease (on next slide) -THE LOST COLONY OF ROANOKE: The 1st actual attempt to plant a colony in N America was the Roanoke colony in 1585 by Sir Walter Raleigh (a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I). He brought 100 colonists and 7 ships off the coast of North Carolina to Roanoke Island. Within a year nature (hurricanes) and native had forced the colonists back to England. In the second attempt in 1587, The first English baby was born in the New World—Virginia Dare, and the ship’s captain sailed back to England for supplies. He was prevented from returning immediately by war between Spain and England. When he came back in 1591, no one was to be found. The word Croatoan was carved into a tree…it was the name of a nearby Native American tribe. Perhaps the colonists starved or were attacked or joined the tribe… -Jamestown was settled by investors of the VA Company

6 Disastrous Start What factors led to the disastrous start at Jamestown, Virginia? Pg. 43 Not prepared to work – more interested in gold Not prepared for the rugged life John Smith injured Powhatan natives begin to destroy cattle and crop Starving time POW HA TAN On p. 43—Have students tell what factors led to the disastrous start…. -They arrived too late in the season to plant crops. Everyone had to carve out homes in the wilderness. Within a few months many of the settlers died of famine and disease (contaminated river water), while others went to live with Native American tribes. Many of the genteel settlers were not used to hard labor. The settlers wanted GOLD, and were not interested in working. Many refused to clear lands, plant crops, or even gather shellfish. Out of the 104 (150 started the journey) remaining settlers that were brought over, only 38 made it through the 1st year at Jamestown—largely due in part to Captain John Smith. -John Smith, a former crusader and pirate, was chosen as the leader. He discovered the settlers were not used to hard labor…he put strict laws in order ‘No work…no eat” . -Smith held the colony together by forcing the people to farm and by persuading the nearby Powhatan natives to provide food. Legend has it that Smith was exploring the nearby area and was captured by the Powhatan Natives and the chief was going to put Smith the death. But the chief’s daughter Pocahontas saved Smith. Later Pocahontas would marry the English settler John Rolfe, and she converted to Christianity and changed her name to Rebecca. She traveled to England later and died there of smallpox. Another story is Smith just participated in an initiation ceremony and that a Pocahontas was kidnapped in 1612 by the English and later caught the eye of John Rolfe. -Smith was injured by a spark setting off a gunpowder bag he was wearing (he was burned) and had to go back to England for medical treatment. This left Jamestown to fend for itself. -By 1609, 600 new colonist arrive and the Powhatan Natives are alarmed at the growing number of settlers. The began to burn crops and kill livestock. -By the following winter, famine set in. In the “starving time” period, colonists ate roots, rats, snakes, and even boiled shoe leather. Of the 600 new colonists, only about 60 survived. -The remaining colonists decided to abandon the colony. As they sailed down the James River, the met up with a second English ship of new colonists who convinced them to turn back around. Something would help save this colony…..something called “Brown Gold” -To John Smith’s dismay, the settlers spent their time searching for gold and riches


8 Jamestown survives…. What role does tobacco play in the survival of Jamestown? P45 -Pocahontas was not the only thing to capture the hearts of the English…tobacco did too. -In 1612, the colonists began growing tobacco and it was a primary reason behind Jamestown’s success. It became a highly profitable crop. English colonist John Rolfe experimented by cross breeding tobacco from Brazil and the harsher strain of the Native Americans. -By the late 1620s, colonists exported more than 1.5 million pounds of the brown gold to England each year. -But…the colonists needed a key ingredient to keep producing tobacco…workers! Tobacco turned Jamestown into a profitable enterprise!


10 Labor force needed to grow tobacco………
Comparison of labor sources Headright system Paid own passage Received 50 acres of land Failed to provide enough labor Indentured Servants Worked in exchange for passage Failed to provide enough labor Slavery 1619 Imported in large numbers -The Virginia Company 1st introduced the headright system in Anyone who paid for their own or another passenger’s way over to Virginia received 50 acres of land. Immigration jumped! -To work the large land grants (plantations), owners brought over indentured servants from England. This is a person who agreed to work for 4-7 years for their passage over being paid. -Another group of laborers (20 Africans) first came to Virginia on a Dutch ship in They were treated as indentured servants. After a few years, they received land and freedom. Several decades later the English colonists would began to use Africans as slave labor. The reason for this is economics—get more for your money…a slave was for life. -Indentured servitude still exists today in the developing world. In India and Pakistan, poverty-stricken parents bond their kids to shops where they receive food and clothes in exchange for their labor. Adults sometimes bond themselves too to pay off debts or gain the use of land. To come to VA the Headright system offered them land!

11 Native Americans What was the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans? p.46 -English did not want to live with the Indians and intermarry. They never forgot the Powhatan’s hostility during the starving time. In retaliation, the leaders of Jamestown demanded tributes of corn and labor for natives. Soldiers pressed these demands by setting Powhatan villages on fire or kidnapping children (like Pocahontas). The marriage of Pocahontas to Englishman John Rolfe in 1614 established a peace treaty between the English and the Powhatan tribe. But the peace would not last. The relationship b/t the Indians and colonists at Jamestown worsened) -1622, Powhatans attack English villages on the James River, killing more than 340 colonists. Attack forces the VA company to send in troops and supplies, leaving it nearly bankrupt. -1624 King James I revoked the VA company’s charter and makes it a royal colony—under direct control of the king. -King sent in troops, by 1644, 10,000 English are living in VA, and the native population continues to fall. Marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe Chief Powhatan


13 Bacon’s Rebellion Poor frontier farmers demanded that the Governor Berkeley protect them from the Natives Berkeley refused Nathaniel Bacon – led a rebellion against the governor Bacon marches on Jamestown to speak with House of Burgesses- 1st colonial legislature in America Nathaniel Bacon P.46—Have students create a timeline of events for Bacon’s Rebellion (P.47-48) Put timeline on board and have them complete it as a class -By the s, VA poor farmers felt oppressed and frustrated by the politics of the governor, Sir William Berkeley. They were mostly former indentured servants who didn’t have enough money to buy land and couldn’t vote. The governor raised high taxes, and these taxes were not used for the public good but for the wealthy planters. -As hostilities grew between the settlers and the Indians in VA’s western frontier the settlers demanded to know why money collected in taxes was not being used to defend them from the Natives through the building of forts. -In June 1675, the frontier settlers and the native Doeg tribe. The frontier settlers killed 14 friendly Susquehannock and then killed 5 chiefs during a peace conference. Fighting broke out between the tribe and the settlers and the settlers wanted military support from the governor. He refused. -29 year old planter Nathaniel Bacon (hot tempered, wealthy son on an Englishman) hated the Natives. Called them wolves who preyed upon the lambs. -1676 Bacon raised an army to fight the natives in VA frontier. Gov. Berkeley declared Bacon’s army illegal. Bacon just marched on Jamestown in Sept 1676 to confront the House of Burgesses—VA’s colonial legislature (1st colonial legislature), to discuss the wrongs done such as high taxes without the consent of the governed. (Ironically, 100 yrs later in the American Revolution rich and poor colonists will have the same complaint against England) -The march turned violent and rebels set fire to Jamestown. Gov. Berkeley fled. Bacon died of illness a month later. The governor returned and subdued the rebels. Bacon led a rebellion of frontier colonists against the Virginia Govt -Bacon’s rebellion succeeded in drawing King Charles’s attention to Berkeley’s government and policies. The governor was asked to come to England and explain himself but died before meeting with the king. Bacon’s Rebellion exposed the growing power of the colony’s former indentured servants. -House of Burgesses: 1st representative body in colonial America. Met in Jamestown in July 30, Included 2 citizens or burgesses from each of VA’s 11 districts. The House could tax and make laws. The Governor had the right to veto any act of the House. Only white male land owners could vote (limited democracy). It did represent the development of a representative government of English America. The House of Burgesses would supply delegates to the Continental Congress—the revolutionary body that organized the split with Great Britain. Nathaniel Bacon leads Virginia settlers against Native Americans during Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676.

14 Puritan New England Section 3
Puritans – church members who wanted to “purify” or reform the Church of England. Came to new world for religious reasons – believed that the Church of England was too Catholic Origins- English Reformation – King Henry VIII broke from the Catholic church to form the Anglican Church. Separatists (Pilgrims) were Puritans who believed that the Church could not be reformed – members should separate from the church. Pilgrims – left England to escape persecution – founded Plymouth Colony in 1620 (2nd colony) -When the Puritans came over to America, Jamestown was struggling to survive. -The Puritans emigrated to create a model society—John Winthrop, the 1st governor, called it a “City upon a Hill” -Remember Henry VIII and his 6 wives from World History? Divorced, Beheaded, Died, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived. He wanted a divorce from his first wife (Catherine of Aragon) so he could marry Anne Boleyn to have a son. And the pope (England was Catholic) wouldn’t annul his first marriage so he declared himself the head of the English Church and made it Anglican in the 1530s. (Henry’s name is hyperlinked to a website with a picture) -Even though the Anglican Church was free from Catholic control, some people called Puritans felt it still had way too many Catholic rituals. Puritans felt all people could worship God directly thru faith, prayer, and the study of the bible. They objected to the authority of Anglican bishops. Some Puritans wanted to remain in the Church and reform it, while others called Separatists (Pilgrims) wanted to split from the church. -The Pilgrims fled from England first to Holland (Netherlands) and eventually to America. They came over on the Mayflower from Plymouth England in Sept 1620 and reached Provincetown Harbor in Cape Cod Massachusetts two months later on Nov. 21, 1620. -The Pilgrims founded the Plymouth colony, the 2nd permanent colony in N America -On the way over they agreed to the Mayflower Compact—that was an agreement to obey the king, do good for the colony, and formed a government based on the consent of those governed. (1st colonial agreement to do so) -Colonists had a hard time surviving at first. Squanto, a Native American, served as a guide for the colonists and taught them how to farm and fish the area. They learned to plant corn, fertilize their fields, and Squanto acted as an interpreter b/t the Indians and the Wampanoag Indians in SE Mass. In 1621, the Pilgrims celebrated their 1st harvest with the Native Americans. It lasted 3 days. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln officially made the 4th Thursday in Nov Thanksgiving Day. -Later the Plymouth Colony would be incorporated into the larger Massachusetts Bay Colony, with the port town of Boston as the capital. -Division soon threatened the Massachusetts Bay colony. Two dissenters, Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams challenged the social order of the colony.

15 Plymouth colony becomes incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay colony

16 Massachusetts (part of it will become Maine later—not one of the orginial 13 colonies), Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire -Have students highlight the New England colonies on their maps

17 Dissent in the Puritan Community
What problems did Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson have with Puritan beliefs? P.52 Roger Williams believed that land taken from the Indians must be paid for and settlers should not be punished for their religious beliefs – He founded Rhode Island based on religious freedom P. 52 Have students read 1st. --Roger Williams said each person was free to worship as they chose. Puritans kept a watchful eye on everyone—if a wife and husband fought too much, a court might make them go to marriage counseling. If the parents were not raising the kids by dealing with disobedience, their kids may be taken and put in a more God-fearing home. The community played a big role in Puritan lives. --Roger Williams was ordered to be arrested and go back to England but he fled Mass and instead in Jan 1636 he headed south and with the Narragansett tribe negotiated for land to set up a new colony---Rhode Island. Providence b/c the capital and Williams guaranteed separation of church and state. -Roger Williams est. the colony of RI -Anne Hutchinson was banished as well. She moved to Rhode Island and then on to the colony of New Netherland. She died in a war b/t the Dutch and the natives. TALK ABOUT HALF-WAY COVENANT (in standards): Half-Way Covenant religion Main religious-political solution adopted by 17th-century New England Congregationalists, also called Puritans, that allowed the children of baptized but unconverted church members to be baptized and thus become church members and have political rights. Early Congregationalists had become members of the church after they could report an experience of conversion. Their children were baptized as infants, but, before these children were admitted to full membership in the church and permitted to partake of the Lord’s Supper, they were expected to also give evidence of a conversion experience. Many never reported a conversion experience but, as adults, were considered church members because they had been baptized, although they were not admitted to the Lord’s Supper and were not allowed to vote or hold office. Anne Hutchinson – believed that worshipers did not need the church to interpret the Bible for them.

18 Disputes between Native American and Colonists
Native Americans land treaties were agreements to share the land for which they received gifts. Land Treaties Europeans Land treaties were a one-time deal in which the Natives permanently sold their land to new owners. -While Williams and his followers were settling RI, thousands of other settlers were moving to new colonies in New Hampshire and Connecticut. As Native Americans saw their lands claimed and cleared for farming, disputes b/t the groups started in New England. -Europeans and the Natives saw land treaties as two different things. Native Americans thought that no one owned the lands. They saw the treaties as sharing lands for a limited time while the settlers saw it as a one-time deal where land was permanently sold. -The first major conflict was the Pequot War in 1637

19 Pequot War 1637 first major conflict occurred when Pequot nation decided to fight back against the colonists. Colonists nearly destroyed the Pequot nation in a brutal battle -War over land arose in Connecticut when the Pequot (PEE-QUAT) nation decided to take a stand against the colonists. The colonists formed an alliance with the Narragansett (NAR RA GAN SET) and declared war. -The result of the Pequot War was the near destruction of the Pequot nation. -The end came in May 1637 when 90 colonists and hundreds of their Indian allies surrounded a Pequot fort and set in on fire. The colonists shot the men, women, children as they tried to escape. Almost all died.

20 King Philip’s War Wampanoag chief Metacom (King Philip) leads war against the English settlers in New England in 1675. War ends with English victory, but with many deaths -Many natives had to work for the English once their lands were taken. They were expected to obey the Puritan rules of no hunting or fishing on the Sabbath day. They became tired of these rules and rebelled. -Wampanoag (WAM PA KNOW AGG) chief Metacom (called King Philip by the English) organized his tribe and others in a war against the English. -Metacom died from a bullet fired by an Indian ally on the English side. Even though the English won the war, they paid a high price. 1/10 of all colonial men of military age in New England had died. This was a higher proportion than would be killed in the American Revolution or the Civil War of the 1860s. -Result of King Philip’s War? War ends with English victory but many deaths

21 Middle Atlantic Colonies
Section 4 Settlement of the Middle Atlantic Colonies New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware The Dutch founded New Netherland and named the capital New Amsterdam The English drove the Dutch out of the colony and changed the name to New York Divided into New York – New Jersey - Delaware -Take out 13 colony map—label the Middle Colonies -While the English were making colonies in New England, the Dutch were founding tone to the south Henry Hudson (an Englishman employed by the Dutch) sailed up the Hudson River. In 1621, The Dutch granted the Dutch West India Company permission to colonize New Netherland expand the fur trade. -New Amsterdam (now New York City) was founded in 1625 as the capital. -To the English the Dutch land was a wedge between their colonies. In 1664, King Charles II allowed his brother James the Duke of York (later King James II) to drive out the Dutch. The Dutch surrendered without firing a shot. The Duke renamed the land New York and gave part of the land to two friends who named it New Jersey.

22 Middle Colonies New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware

23 Penn’s Holy Experiment
William Penn started the colony of Pennsylvania for religious freedom for the Quakers. How did Quaker beliefs compare to Puritan beliefs? P.57 Answer: held services w/o ministers, dressed plainly, everyone was equal, peaceful, representative government, freedom of religion -The development of Pennsylvania came about due to the Quaker William Penn---for religious freedom. In the 1660s England was no place for Quakers. -The Quakers believed that God’s inner light burned inside everyone and held services w/o formal ministers, allowed anyone to speak freely in church (even women), refused to defer to persons of rank, opposed war and refused to serve in the military. They were harassed by Puritains and Anglicans. -Penn saw his colony as a holy experiment, and guaranteed every adult male 50 acres of land and the right to vote. He called for a representative govt and freedom of religion. He also est. a capital he called the city of brotherly love, or Philadelphia. -He also treated the natives fairly by having a court composed of both settlers and natives to settle any differences. For more than 50 yrs the groups had no conflict with each other.

24 Southern Colonies Maryland, Georgia, North & South Carolina, Virginia
Maryland – religious freedom North and South Carolina – owners wanted to establish large plantations Georgia – to help debtors Label the Southern Colonies on map: Maryland, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia -Throughout the 1600s and 1700s, other British colonies were founded in north America, each for different reasons. -In 1632, King Charles I granted a land charter to Lord Baltimore (George Calvert) which became the colony of Maryland-named after Queen Henrietta Maria. Lord Baltimore, who was Roman Catholic, made the colony based on religious freedom. -In King Charles II gave the lads of North and South Carolina to a group of supporters. -In 1732, James Ogelthorpe was granted a charter for a colony that would be a haven for those in prison for debt in England—became Georgia, after King George II. Few debtors actually came to GA, and the policies of Ogelthorpe of no slavery and no rum were reversed when the British crown took control of the colony in 1752. -By this time there were 13 colonies in N America….and a growing desire for independence would put a strain on their relationship with England… -North and South Carolina were one colony until Carolina was named to honor Charles IX of France and then Charles I and Charles II of England.

25 Southern Colonies

26 The Northern part of Mass will become Maine

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