Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Skeletal System. Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 Skeletal System  Two Parts –Axial skeleton = 80 bones Skull Spine.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System. Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 Skeletal System  Two Parts –Axial skeleton = 80 bones Skull Spine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System

2 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 Skeletal System  Two Parts –Axial skeleton = 80 bones Skull Spine Ribs Sternum –Appendicular skeleton – 126 bones Arms Legs

3 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 Skeletal System  Two Parts –Axial skeleton = 80 bones –Appendicular skeleton – 126 bones

4 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 Functions of the Skeletal System  Shape & Support  Aids in movement  Supports and protects internal organs  Produces red and white blood cells  Stores minerals

5 Skull  Skull – 22 bones in the skull  8 bones in the cranium Parietal – 2 – form the roof & sides of skull Frontal – 1 – forms the forehead Occipital -1 – forms the base of the skull Temporal – 2 – house the ears Ethmoid – 1 – located between the eyes; forms part of the nasal septum Sphenoid – 1 – key bone in the skull – all other bones connect to it

6 Facial Bones  Facial bones – 14 bones –Nasal – 5 bones nasal bones – 2- forming the bridge of the nose vomer – 1 – forms the lower or midline of the nasal septum inferior concha – 2 – form the side walls of the nasal cavity –Maxilla – 2 – make up the upper jaw –Lacrimal – 2 – the inner aspect of the eyes – contain tear ducts –Zygomatic – 2 – form the cheek bones –Palatine – 2 – form the hard palate of the mouth –Mandible – 1 – lower jaw & is the only movable bone in the face

7 Vertebral Column  Cervical vertebrae – 7 – located in the neck area  Thoracic vertebrae – 12 – located in the thoracic area; articulate with the ribs  Lumbar vertebrae – 5 – located in the lower back area  Sacrum – 5 fused bones  Coccyx – 4 fused bones; aka tailbone

8 Intervertebral Discs  Pads of cartilage tissue separating the vertebrae  Act as shock absorbers  Permit bending & twisting movements of the vertebral column

9 Spinal Defects  Kyphosis –Hunchback - rounding or bowing of the back at the thoracic vertebrae  Lordosis –Swayback – abnormal inward curvature of the lumbar vertebrae  Scoliosis –Lateral (side to side) curvature of the spine

10 NormalLordosis Kyphosis

11 Sternum/Costals  Sternum – three parts –manubrium – gladiolus – xyphoid process  Costals – true ribs – false ribs – floating ribs

12 Pectoral Girdle Clavicle – 2 and Scapula - 2

13 Arm  Humerus  Radius  Ulna

14 Hand  Carpals (8)  Metacarpals (5)  Phalanges (14) –Thumb –First through fourth digits

15 Pelvic Girdle  Ilium  Ischium  Pubis

16 Upper Leg/Lower Leg  Upper Leg – Femur  Lower Leg –Patella –Tibia – Fibula

17 Foot  Tarsals (7)  Calcaneus  Metatarsals (5)  Phalanges (14)

18 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18 Bone Growth  Epiphyseal cartilage – absence of epiphyseal cartilage – growth stops –Growth in females – up to age 18 –Growth in males – between yrs

19 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19 Bone Types  Bones are classified according to their shape –Long – have a shaft Arms & legs – femur, radius, tibia, clavicle –Flat – Skull, ribs, sternum, scapula, pelvis –Irregular – specialized bones w/specific shapes Spinal column, (vertebrae) ears, face –Short – cube-like shapes Carpals & tarsals –Sesamoid – small, rounded bones Patella

20 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20 Long Bone Anatomy  The structure of bones in the body allows them to be both lightweight and strong.

21 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21 Fractures  Fractures are classified based on the various characteristics of the broken bone.

22 FRACTURES  Types –Closed/Simple –Open/Compound Greenstick Comminuted Stress Complex Colles’ Fracture Impacted Compression Spiral Any break in a bone Most common injury to a bone

23

24 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 24 Fracture Types  Compound (open) fracture: skin penetrated –Wound & bone infection  Simple (closed) fracture: no skin penetration –Complete break Two separate pieces Comminuted: three or more pieces

25 25

26 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 26 Fracture Types (cont.)  Simple (closed) fracture: no skin penetration –Incomplete Greenstick: in children with flexible bones Stress: due to overuse, weakness, biomechanical problems Epiphyseal plate: young people near growth plate

27 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 27 Fractures cont’d  Signs & Symptoms –Swelling –Deformity –Pain –Tenderness –Discoloration –Possible bleeding –Nerve injury

28 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 28 Fracture Treatments  Remodeling – process of absorbing and replacing bone  Bones often heal naturally  Reduction – putting bones into proper alignment –External fixation – using a cast for alignment –Internal fixation – surgery is needed Wires Plates Screws

29 FRACTURE REPAIR

30 SOFT TISSUE INJURIES Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 30

31 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 31 Soft Tissue Injuries  Most are due to traumatic injury or overuse of muscles or joints  Most sport injuries are due to minor trauma involving soft tissue  Affect the skin, muscles, ligaments, and tendons

32 Soft Tissue Injuries  Classified as Open or Closed –Open Abrasions Lacerations Avulsions Puncture wounds Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 32

33 Soft Tissue Injuries –Closed Contusions Hematomas Ecchymosis Sprains Strains Tendonitis Bursitis Stress-related injuries –Stress fractures Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 33

34 Abrasions and Scrapes  Occur when several layers of skin are torn loose or totally removed –Treatment Wash to remove dirt & debris Leave open to air Ice packs or cool towels help with pain May need a tetanus shot –Medical attention if Pain increases Redness or streaks appear Swelling Purulent drainage Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 34

35 Lacerations  A tear in the skin resulting from an injury. AKA a cut –Lacerations less than ¼” deep and ½” long with smooth edges can be treated at home –Deep lacerations must be treated by a physician Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 35

36 Lacerations cont’d  Treatment –Clean the wound Wash & irrigate –Treat bruising & swelling with ice and elevation  Contact a Dr if –Laceration is deep/long –Wound is on the face, eyelids, lips –Deep cuts to the palm, fingers, elbow, or knee –Loss of sensation or normal ROM Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 36

37 Avulsions  An injury where layers of the skin are either torn completely off or a flap of skin remains –Treatment Cleanse the wound Deep wound – see a Dr Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 37

38 Puncture Wounds  Caused by sharp, pointed objects that penetrate the skin Nails, tacks, ice picks, teeth, needles –Treatment Remove object Clean wound See a Dr if inflammation is seen Tetanus shot may be needed Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 38

39 Contusions  Direct blow that does not break the skin –Usually has a bruise –Treatment is RICE –May need to see a Dr Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 39

40 Hematomas  Blood and fluid pooling within a tissue space, compartment, or organ  Usually the result of a contusion  Treatment –RICE Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 40

41 Ecchymosis  The accumulation of blood in the skin and subcutaneous tissues  AKA bruising  A result of injury –Treatment Anti-inflammatory Compression dressings Ice Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 41

42 Injury Response  Inflammation – the body’s reaction by an infectious agent or physical, chemical or traumatic damage –Tissues are subjected to physical trauma; pain, heat, redness & swelling occur  Oldest defense mechanism  Can become chronic Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 42

43 Cell Regeneration  Regeneration – the act of wound healing (tissue rebuilding)  Cells work to close and repair the wound  Cannot repair – scarring occurs Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 43

44 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 44 JOINTS

45 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 45 Articular System  Joint articulation – –when two bones come into contact Freely moveable – knees & hips Slightly moveable – pubic symphysis Immobile – skull  Arthrology – the study of joints

46 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 46 Articular System  Joints provide two main functions: motion and stability  There are three classifications –Synarthroses –Amphiarthroses –Diarthroses

47 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 47 Synarthrotic Joints  lack a synovial cavity  bones are held together by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage  immovable joint  Three types: –Sutures –Syndesmoses –Gomphoses

48 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 48 Synarthrotic Joints  Three types: –Sutures – found in the skull –Syndesmoses - bones connected by ligaments between the bones Fibula & tibia Ulna & radius –Gomphoses – fits into a socket and held in place by a ligament tooth

49 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 49 Amphiarthrotic Joints  joint type where bones are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage  slightly movable joint –ribs to the sternum –symphysis pubis –vetebral joints

50 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 50 Diarthrotic Joints or Synovial Joints  type of joint connecting bones by cartilage separated by a joint cavity  contain a synovial membrane secreting the synovial fluid  freely movable joints  six different types –Pivot –Gliding –Hinge –Condyloid –Ball-and-socket –Saddle

51

52 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 52 Diarthrotic Joints or Synovial Joints  Pivot – bone moves around a central axis

53 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 53 Diarthrotic Joints or Synovial Joints  Gliding – bones makes a sliding motion

54 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 54 Diarthrotic Joints or Synovial Joints  Hinge – allows only extension & flexion

55 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 55 Diarthrotic Joints or Synovial Joints  Condyloid – Ellipsoidal – bones can move about in many directions but cannot rotate

56 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 56 Diarthrotic Joints or Synovial Joints  Ball-and-socket – provides widest range of movement

57 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 57 Diarthrotic Joints or Synovial Joints  Saddle –

58 Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 58 Diarthrotic Joint or Synovial Joint Movements  Synovial joints allow for 18 different movements –Flexion –Extension –Hyperextension –Abduction (movement of limbs only) –Adduction (movement of limbs only) –Rotation –Circumduction- Retraction –Supination- Elevation –Pronation- Depression –Plantar flexion- Opposition –Dorsiflextion –Inversion –Eversion –Protraction

59


Download ppt "Skeletal System. Copyright ©2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 Skeletal System  Two Parts –Axial skeleton = 80 bones Skull Spine."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google