2 Year 12 Units Single Double Triple 1: Anatomy & Physiology 8: Practical Team Sport12: Current Issues in Sport2: Physiology of Fitness13: Leadership in Sport23: Organising Sports Events3: Assessing Risk in Sport14: Exercise, Health & Lifestyle26: Work Experience in Sport7: Fitness Testing for Sport & Exercise
4 The human body has approximately 206 Bones. Learning OutcomesBe able to label and correctly identify the skeletal systemUnderstand the different types of bones in the body and their purposeInteresting Fact:The human body has approximately 206 Bones.
6 Structure of the Skeleton: The bones of the skeleton can be divided into two distinct categories:AXIAL:The Axial skeleton provides the main area of support for the body, and includes the cranium, vertebral column and ribcage.
7 Structure of the skeleton: APPENDICULAR:Consists of the appendages, or the bones of the limbs, together with the girdles that join on to the axial skeleton.
8 Functions of the Skeleton SupportProtectionAttachment for skeletal muscleLeverageBlood cell productionStorage of minerals
9 Classifying BonesThere are 5 basic types of bone. Their size and make up are linked to how we use them.LongThese are the large bones in our legs and arms. They are used in the main movements of the body.ShortThese are the small bones at the joints of our hands and feet, allowing fine movements
10 FlatThese are the bones of the skull, shoulder girdle, ribs and pelvic girdle. They protect the vital organs of the body. Large muscles can be attached to the flat bones.IrregularThese are the bones in the face and vertebral column. They gave the body protection and shape.
11 SesamoidSesamoid bones have a specialised function. They ease joint movement and resist friction and compression. They are usually developed in tendons and are covered in a layer of articular cartilage. The largest is the patella in the knee. This also prevents the knee from hyperextending.
12 Joints The human skeleton is jointed to allow movement. Muscular contraction causes the bones to move about the joints.The bones act as levers with the joints acting as pivots.A joint is where two or more bones meet and muscles act together to cause movement.
13 Types of Joints There are 3 main types of joint found in the body. 1. Fixed or Immoveable JointsThe bones at an immoveable joint cannot move - they overlap or interlock, and are held together by a tough fibre, e.g. the skull.2. Slightly Moveable JointsThe bones at a slightly moveable joint can only movea little - they are held together by strong strapscalled ligaments and are joined by protective padsknown as cartilage, e.g. the ribs.3. Freely Moveable JointsAt a freely moveable joint the bones move freely.They are also known as synovial joints, andare the largest group of joints found in the body,e.g. the hips, shoulders and knees.
14 Freely Moveable Joints Freely Moveable joints are also known as Synovial Joints.They are freely moving and occur where 2 or more bones meet.There are about 70 freely moveable joints in the human skeleton.A typical synovial joint has the following characteristics:1. Cartilage – A material which covers the end of each bone, and which helps prevent friction between the joint.2. Joint Capsule – The outer covering of the joint that holds the bones together and protects the joint.3. Synovial Membrane – The inner lining of the joint capsule which also produces synovial fluid.4. Synovial Fluid – The fluid which surrounds the joint and acts like an ‘oil’, lubricating it to allow easy movement.5. Ligaments – These are elastic straps which join bone to bone, holding the joint together.6. Tendons – These are non-elastic straps which join muscle to bone.
15 Examples of Synovial Joints Hip JointElbow JointThis joint can be moved in the following ways:BendStraightenCircleMove away from the bodyMove towards the bodyThis joint can be moved in the following ways:BendStraighten
16 Shoulder JointKnee JointThis joint can be moved in the following ways:BendStraightenCircleMove away from the bodyMove towards the bodyThis joint can be moved in the following ways:BendStraighten
17 Wrist JointThis joint can be moved in the following ways:Bend – but not as much as the knee & elbow.Straighten - but not as much as the knee & elbow.Circle – but not as much as the shoulder & hip.Move away from the body – but not as much as the shoulder & hip.Move towards the body – but not as much as the shoulder & hip.
18 Types of Synovial Joints Freely moveable (synovial) joints can be divided into six groups depending upon how they move.KEYBall & Socket JointHinge JointPivot JointGliding JointSaddle JointEllipsoid or Condyloid Joint
19 They can move in all directions, e.g. the hip and shoulder joints. 1. Ball and Socket JointsBall and Socket joints are the most moveable joints in the body.They can move in all directions, e.g. the hip and shoulder joints.
20 They can only move in two directions, e.g. the knee and elbow joints. 2. Hinge JointsHinge joints work like a hinge on a door.They can only move in two directions, e.g. the knee and elbow joints.
21 3. Pivot Joints 4. Gliding Joints This joint only allows rotation, e.g. the vertebrae of the neck.4. Gliding JointsThere is a little movement in all directions, e.g. the hand between the carpals.
22 5. Saddle Joints 6. Condyloid Joints In these joints there is movement forwards, backwards and to the right and left, but no rotation, e.g. the thumb.6. Condyloid JointsHere there is a little movement in all directions, but there is no rotation, e.g. the wrist.
23 What types of movement are possible at the following joints? Ball and Socket Joint:ExtensionFlexionAbductionAdductionRotationCircumductionHinge Joint:Pivot Joint:ExtensionFlexionRotation
24 Types of movement Supination Flexion Plantar Flexion Extension AbductionAdductionCircumductionRotationPronationSupinationPlantar FlexionDorsiflexionInversionEversionHyper-extension
25 Movement at Synovial Joints Different types of synovial joints allow different kinds of movement.1. Extension: Straightening or extending a limb.2. Flexion: Bending or flexing a limb.Example: the arm can be extended at the elbow.Example: the leg can be flexed at the knee.
26 3. Abduction: Moving a limb away from the centre line of the body. 4. Adduction: Moving a limb towards the centre line of the body.Example: The leg can be moved away from the centre of the body at the hip.Example: The arm can be moved towards the centre of the body at the shoulder.
27 Example: the head can be rotated at the neck. 5. Rotation: This is a turning or rotational movement of a limb or body part.6. Circumduction: The ability of a limb to be moved in circles.Example: the head can be rotated at the neck.Example: the arm can move in circles at the shoulder.