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Skeletal System

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System

2 What is it? Framework of structures Made of bones & cartilage
Supports & protects the body Axial Skeleton Includes skull, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum

3 Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebrae Many plates of bones fused together
Soft spot on top of skull Fontanel Vertebrae Five distinct regions Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccygeal

4 Cervical Vertebrae of the neck region
Atlas  called “C1”, the first cervical vertebra Forms joint that lets you nod “yes” Axis  called “C2”, the second cervical vertebra Forms joint that lets you nod “no” 7 cervical vertebrae in all mammals

5 Thoracic Vertebrae of the body region, always have a rib attached and a spine on top “True ribs” Directly attached to sternum with cartilage “False ribs” Connect to each other with cartilage, not the sternum “Floating ribs” Seen in the dog, have cartilage on the tips but do not attach to anything

6 Lumbar Vertebrae of the lower back
Carnivores tend to have more – greater flexibility Herbivores need to have short, strong back to support large digestive and reproductive organs

7 Sacral Vertebrae of the pelvic region
Fused together on the ventral side Herbivores generally have more to add strength & support to the back. Carnivores less for flexibility

8 Coccygeal Vertebrae of the tail region Used for balance
Become smaller at the end of the tail

9 Appendicular Skeleton
The fore and hind limbs Forelimb Scapula- shoulder blade attached with muscle Clavicle Cat is the only domestic animal with a clavicle Humerus Forms the upper arm Ulna Forms the elbow joint, fused with the radius in herbivores

10 Appendicular Skeleton
Forelimb Radius- forms the forearm Carpus Commonly called the “knee” in horses, the “wrist” in dogs and humans Metacarpals- commonly called the cannon region of the forelimb

11 Appendicular Skeleton
Metacarpals Number depends on species: Humans: 5 Horses: 1 plus 2 accessory metacarpals, called splint bones Dogs & Cats: 4 plus the dewclaw Cattle: 1 that splits at bottom into a cloven hoof & 2 dewclaws Pigs: 4 (2 toes & 2 dewclaws)

12 Appendicular Skeleton
Forelimb Proximal phalanx (P1) Bones of the finger, hoof, and claw Intermediate phalanx (P2) Distal phalanx (P3) The coffin bone in horses Proximal sesamoids Tucked in behind P1 Distal sesamoid Tucked in underneath P3

13 Appendicular Skeleton
Hind Limb Pelvis Tuber coxae-part of pelvis that forms the “point of hip” Ischiatic tuberosity-part of pelvis that forms the “seat bones” Femur Patella Forms the “stifle” joint in horses, knee in dogs or humans Tibia Main bone of the gaskin of the horse

14 Appendicular Skeleton
Hind Limb Fibula Fused with the tibia & considered vestigial in herbivores Tarsus Commonly called “hock” Human ankle Metatarsal Cannon region in the hind limb. Number depends on species P1 P2 P3 Proximal & distal sesamoids

15 Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
Axis Vertebrae Skull Cervical Sacral Thoracic Lumbar Coccygeal Atlas Scapula Pelvis Femur Patella Humerus Ribs Olecranon Fibula Tibia Radius Tarsals Carpals Metatarsals Ulna Phalanges Phalanges Sesamoids Metacarpals

16 Classification of Bones
Short Bone Cube shaped (carpus & tarsus) Flat Bone Plate of bone (scapula, rib, skull) Irregular Bone Complex shaped (vertebrae) Sesamoid Small, seed-shaped bone (proximal & distal sesamoids, patella) Long Bone Bone is longer than it is wide (femur, tibia, humerus)

17 Bone Anatomy Diaphysis Epiphysis Metaphysis Medullary Cavity Endosteum
Body of a long bone Epiphysis Enlarged ends of long bones Metaphysis Joining point of diaphysis & epiphysis Medullary Cavity Space within bone filled with marrow Endosteum Thin inner protective layer lining the medullary cavity

18 Bone Anatomy Epiphysis Diaphysis Periosteum Medullary cavity Endosteum
Bone marrow Metaphysis

19 Bone Growth Occurs in the epiphysis of long bones
Epiphyseal growth plates produce cartilage, which gradually turns into bone via a process called ossification.

20 Fractures Simple Compound Complete Incomplete Bone does not break skin
Bone breaks through skin, much more serious Complete Fracture goes completely across the bone. Incomplete Fracture does not go completely across bone.

21 Classifying Fractures
Fissure fracture Incomplete break, along the long axis of the bone Greenstick fracture Incomplete break on one side of a bone, usually due to a bending force Transverse fracture Break across the bone Comminuted fracture Bone shatters into many pieces

22 Bone Fractures Fissured Greenstick Transverse Comminuted

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