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M6XOPRGU Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "M6XOPRGU Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:


2 What is it? Framework of structures Made of bones & cartilage Supports & protects the body Axial Skeleton  Includes skull, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum

3 Axial Skeleton Skull  Many plates of bones fused together  Soft spot on top of skull  Fontanel Vertebrae  Five distinct regions  Cervical  Thoracic  Lumbar  Sacral  Coccygeal

4 Cervical Vertebrae of the neck region  Atlas  called “C1”, the first cervical vertebra  Forms joint that lets you nod “yes”  Axis  called “C2”, the second cervical vertebra  Forms joint that lets you nod “no”  7 cervical vertebrae in all mammals

5 Thoracic Vertebrae of the body region, always have a rib attached and a spine on top “True ribs”  Directly attached to sternum with cartilage “False ribs”  Connect to each other with cartilage, not the sternum “Floating ribs”  Seen in the dog, have cartilage on the tips but do not attach to anything

6 Lumbar Vertebrae of the lower back Carnivores tend to have more – greater flexibility Herbivores need to have short, strong back to support large digestive and reproductive organs

7 Sacral Vertebrae of the pelvic region Fused together on the ventral side Herbivores generally have more to add strength & support to the back. Carnivores less for flexibility

8 Coccygeal Vertebrae of the tail region Used for balance Become smaller at the end of the tail

9 Appendicular Skeleton The fore and hind limbs Forelimb  Scapula- shoulder blade attached with muscle  Clavicle  Cat is the only domestic animal with a clavicle  Humerus  Forms the upper arm  Ulna  Forms the elbow joint, fused with the radius in herbivores

10 Appendicular Skeleton Forelimb  Radius- forms the forearm  Carpus  Commonly called the “knee” in horses, the “wrist” in dogs and humans  Metacarpals- commonly called the cannon region of the forelimb

11 Appendicular Skeleton Metacarpals Number depends on species:  Humans: 5  Horses: 1 plus 2 accessory metacarpals, called splint bones  Dogs & Cats: 4 plus the dewclaw  Cattle: 1 that splits at bottom into a cloven hoof & 2 dewclaws  Pigs: 4 (2 toes & 2 dewclaws)

12 Appendicular Skeleton Forelimb  Proximal phalanx (P1)  Bones of the finger, hoof, and claw  Intermediate phalanx (P2)  Distal phalanx (P3)  The coffin bone in horses  Proximal sesamoids  Tucked in behind P1  Distal sesamoid  Tucked in underneath P3

13 Appendicular Skeleton Hind Limb  Pelvis  Tuber coxae-part of pelvis that forms the “point of hip”  Ischiatic tuberosity-part of pelvis that forms the “seat bones”  Femur  Patella  Forms the “stifle” joint in horses, knee in dogs or humans  Tibia  Main bone of the gaskin of the horse

14 Appendicular Skeleton Hind Limb  Fibula  Fused with the tibia & considered vestigial in herbivores  Tarsus  Commonly called “hock”  Human ankle  Metatarsal  Cannon region in the hind limb. Number depends on species  P1  P2  P3  Proximal & distal sesamoids

15 Skull Cervical Axis Thoracic Lumbar Atlas Coccygeal Sacral Vertebrae Ribs Scapula Ulna Radius Carpals Humerus Pelvis Metacarpal s Phalange s Tarsals Tibia Metatarsals Fibula Femur Sesamoids Phalange s Olecranon Patella

16 Classification of Bones Short Bone  Cube shaped (carpus & tarsus) Flat Bone  Plate of bone (scapula, rib, skull) Irregular Bone  Complex shaped (vertebrae) Sesamoid  Small, seed-shaped bone (proximal & distal sesamoids, patella) Long Bone  Bone is longer than it is wide (femur, tibia, humerus)

17 Bone Anatomy Diaphysis  Body of a long bone Epiphysis  Enlarged ends of long bones Metaphysis  Joining point of diaphysis & epiphysis Medullary Cavity  Space within bone filled with marrow Endosteum  Thin inner protective layer lining the medullary cavity

18 Periosteum Epiphysis Bone marrow Medullary cavity Metaphysis Endosteum Diaphysis

19 Bone Growth Occurs in the epiphysis of long bones Epiphyseal growth plates produce cartilage, which gradually turns into bone via a process called ossification.

20 Fractures Simple  Bone does not break skin Compound  Bone breaks through skin, much more serious Complete  Fracture goes completely across the bone. Incomplete  Fracture does not go completely across bone.

21 Classifying Fractures Fissure fracture  Incomplete break, along the long axis of the bone Greenstick fracture  Incomplete break on one side of a bone, usually due to a bending force Transverse fracture  Break across the bone Comminuted fracture  Bone shatters into many pieces

22 Fissured ComminutedTransverse Greenstick

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