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Presentation on theme: "SKELETAL SYSTEM review"— Presentation transcript:


2 Major Functions The skeletal system has several functions…

3 Major Functions Support Protection Muscle attachment Provide shape
Blood cell production Storage of calcium

4 Generic Parts Can you name some bone parts we have talked about in class???

5 Generic Parts Epiphysis Diaphysis Cartilage Marrow Osteocytes
Osteoblasts Osteoclasts

6 and marrow, which makes red and white blood cells
The long and short of it Long bones contain: compact bone spongy bone and marrow, which makes red and white blood cells

7 cartilage Connective tissue found in joints
Specialized cells called chondrocytes Three types of cartilage Elastic Hyaline Fibrocartilage Does not contain blood vessels Functions like a rubber cushion at ends of joints

8 The skeleton is divided into two sections

9 Two sections Axial Appendicular
Bones of the pelvis, arms, legs, hands, feet, clavicles, scapulae

10 The Axial skeleton

11 Another name for the skull is…
The skull consists of several bones that have fused together at joints called sutures. Frontal Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Occipital Ethmoid Sphenoid

12 Another name for the skull is…
The cranium

13 Facial bones The eye sockets are also called orbits. The mandible is also called the jaw bone.

14 Rib cage Provides protection to heart & lungs
How many ribs are there??? The tip of the sternum is called the xiphoid. This part is cartilage.

15 Rib cage 12 pairs All attached to the spine
10 pairs attached to the sternum 2 pairs of “floating ribs”

16 Spine - Vertebrae Cervical – 7 Thoracic – 12 Lumbar – 5 Sacrum
Coccyx – 1-3

17 Appendicular skeleton
In addition to the pelvis, arm, leg, hand, and foot bones, the clavicles and scapulae are included in this division

18 Pelvis You will notice the sacrum and coccyx here also…

19 Pelvis Ilium – iliac crest Ischium Pubis – symphysis

20 Arm Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges

21 Leg Femur – head, neck, greater and lesser trochanter Patella
Tibia – medial ankle “bone” Fibula – lateral ankle “bone” Tarsals – talus, calcaneus Metatarsals Phalanges

22 Types of Fractures Simple – break thru bone
Compound – bone end thru skin

23 Types of Fractures Greenstick – bent bone Comminuted – splintered bone

24 Types of Fractures Impacted – bone pieces pressed together
Spiral – break caused by twist

25 Types of Fractures Depressed Colles – fracture of the distal radius

26 Joint Types Synarthroses – immovable (such as cranial bones)
Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable (such as synthesis pubis) Diathroses – freely moveable

27 Diathroses Joints Hinge – elbow, knee, fingers, toes
Pivot – axis, forearm Saddle – thumb Condyloid – wrist, ankle Ball and Socket – shoulder, hip Gliding - vertebrae

28 Diseases/Disorders Sprain – stretched or torn ligament or tendon
Arthritis – inflamed joint Osteomyelitis – infected bone Osteoporosis – loss of bone density Bone cancer Subluxation - dislocation

29 The End

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