Presentation on theme: "Animal Science Mr. Chad Warnick. Skeleton: Overview The skeletal system consists of the bones and joints along with the cartilage and ligaments that occur."— Presentation transcript:
Animal Science Mr. Chad Warnick
Skeleton: Overview The skeletal system consists of the bones and joints along with the cartilage and ligaments that occur at the joints. Bones: Hard Tissue, mostly calcium, provides support and makes Red Blood Cells Ligaments: Strong, white bands of tissue that connect two bones together at a joint
Skeleton: Overview Cartilage: Hard tissue that prevents bones from grinding against each other. Joints: Location of where two or more bones meet. Tendon: Connects muscle to bone.
1. Functions of the Skeleton The skeleton supports the body. The skeleton protects soft body parts. The skeleton produces blood cells. The skeleton stores minerals and fats. The skeleton (along with the muscles) permits flexible body movements.
2. Classification of bones Bones are classified according to their shape. Long (Longer then they are wide) Short (Cube shapes, about equal lengths and widths) Flat (Platelike and have a broad suface) Irregular (Varied shapes with many connections) Round (Circular shape)
2. Classification of bones Long Bones- Longer then they are wide) Longest bones providing support for the body giving it the rigidity (hardness) necessary to stand and move.
EX: Canon Bone, Pelvic, Ribs
Long bones can act as levers
2. Classification of bones Short Bones- (Cube shapted; lengths and widths are about equal. Found in the joints and serve as hinges. They help cushion shock and protect long bones.
Example: Hoofs & Feet
2. Classification of bones Flat Bones (Platelike and have broad surfaces) EX: Skull
2. Classification of bones Irregular Bones- (Varied shapes with many places for connections with other bones)
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone
Periosteum Outer layer Cushions the hard portion of the bone Repair of broken bones
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone Compact Bone Beneath periosteum Layer of hard mineral matter Calcium Gives bones strength
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone Spongy Bone Inside hard outer layer Fills ends of bones Lines hollow portions
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone Red marrow Inside cavities of spongy bone Formation of red blood cells
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone Yellow marrow Located inside hollow portion Fat storage cells Energy storage
4. Axial and Appendicular Skeleton The skeleton is divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton
Important Terms Related to the Skeleton Skeletons can be divided into two sections, which include a. Axial Skeleton. b. Appendicular skeleton
4. Axial and Skeleton The axial skeleton lies in the midline of the body and contains the bones of the skull, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage. (Colored Orange)
Vertebrae are divided into five regions
Cervical Vertebrae-The section in the neck from the skull to the first rib.
Thoracic-extends along the rib cage. Each of these has a rib attached to each side.
Lumbar-The area of the spinal column from the last rib to the pelvis. Also referred to as the loin.
Sacral-Extends through the pelvic area.
Coccygeal- The vertebrae that continue from the pelvis to the end of the tail.
4. Appendicular Skeleton Contains the bones of the fore and rear limbs.
5. Joints Bones are joined together at joints. In most instances bones can articulate at the joints. Classified by the way they move.
5. Joints Joints serve as hinges for the skeletal system.
5. Joints There are 4 types of joints we will discuss: Hinge Knee Ball and Socket Hip Gliding Vertebrae Fixed ( Cartliaginous) Skull
5. Joints - Hinge
5. Joints - Ball & Socket
5. Joints - Gliding
5. Joints - Fixed
Formation of Bones Bone is comprised of: 26% minerals (mostly calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate) 50% is water 4% is fat 20% is protein Bone requires adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals in the ration.
Choose a species
Unlabeled Horse Skeleton
The skeletal system provides support for the animal.