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Animal Science Mr. Chad Warnick. Skeleton: Overview The skeletal system consists of the bones and joints along with the cartilage and ligaments that occur.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Science Mr. Chad Warnick. Skeleton: Overview The skeletal system consists of the bones and joints along with the cartilage and ligaments that occur."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Science Mr. Chad Warnick

2 Skeleton: Overview The skeletal system consists of the bones and joints along with the cartilage and ligaments that occur at the joints. Bones: Hard Tissue, mostly calcium, provides support and makes Red Blood Cells Ligaments: Strong, white bands of tissue that connect two bones together at a joint

3 Skeleton: Overview Cartilage: Hard tissue that prevents bones from grinding against each other. Joints: Location of where two or more bones meet. Tendon: Connects muscle to bone.

4 1. Functions of the Skeleton The skeleton supports the body. The skeleton protects soft body parts. The skeleton produces blood cells. The skeleton stores minerals and fats. The skeleton (along with the muscles) permits flexible body movements.

5 2. Classification of bones Bones are classified according to their shape. Long (Longer then they are wide) Short (Cube shapes, about equal lengths and widths) Flat (Platelike and have a broad suface) Irregular (Varied shapes with many connections) Round (Circular shape)

6 2. Classification of bones Long Bones- Longer then they are wide) Longest bones providing support for the body giving it the rigidity (hardness) necessary to stand and move.

7 EX: Canon Bone, Pelvic, Ribs

8 Long bones can act as levers

9 2. Classification of bones Short Bones- (Cube shapted; lengths and widths are about equal. Found in the joints and serve as hinges. They help cushion shock and protect long bones.

10 Example: Hoofs & Feet

11 2. Classification of bones Flat Bones (Platelike and have broad surfaces) EX: Skull

12 2. Classification of bones Irregular Bones- (Varied shapes with many places for connections with other bones)

13 3. Anatomy of a Long Bone

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15 Periosteum Outer layer Cushions the hard portion of the bone Repair of broken bones

16 3. Anatomy of a Long Bone Compact Bone Beneath periosteum Layer of hard mineral matter Calcium Gives bones strength

17 3. Anatomy of a Long Bone Spongy Bone Inside hard outer layer Fills ends of bones Lines hollow portions

18 3. Anatomy of a Long Bone Red marrow Inside cavities of spongy bone Formation of red blood cells

19 3. Anatomy of a Long Bone Yellow marrow Located inside hollow portion Fat storage cells Energy storage

20 4. Axial and Appendicular Skeleton The skeleton is divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton

21 Important Terms Related to the Skeleton Skeletons can be divided into two sections, which include a. Axial Skeleton. b. Appendicular skeleton

22 4. Axial and Skeleton The axial skeleton lies in the midline of the body and contains the bones of the skull, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage. (Colored Orange)

23 Vertebrae are divided into five regions

24 Cervical Vertebrae-The section in the neck from the skull to the first rib.

25 Thoracic-extends along the rib cage. Each of these has a rib attached to each side.

26 Lumbar-The area of the spinal column from the last rib to the pelvis. Also referred to as the loin.

27 Sacral-Extends through the pelvic area.

28 Coccygeal- The vertebrae that continue from the pelvis to the end of the tail.

29 4. Appendicular Skeleton Contains the bones of the fore and rear limbs.

30 5. Joints Bones are joined together at joints. In most instances bones can articulate at the joints. Classified by the way they move.

31 5. Joints Joints serve as hinges for the skeletal system.

32 5. Joints There are 4 types of joints we will discuss: Hinge Knee Ball and Socket Hip Gliding Vertebrae Fixed ( Cartliaginous) Skull

33 5. Joints - Hinge

34 5. Joints - Ball & Socket

35 5. Joints - Gliding

36 5. Joints - Fixed

37 Formation of Bones Bone is comprised of: 26% minerals (mostly calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate) 50% is water 4% is fat 20% is protein Bone requires adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals in the ration.

38 Choose a species

39 Horse Skeleton

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41 Chicken Skeleton

42 Horse Skeleton

43 Unlabeled Horse Skeleton

44 The skeletal system provides support for the animal.

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48 Skeleton of a Cow

49 1. Cannon8. Shoulder joint 2. Knee joint9. Shoulder blade 3. Radius 10. Eye socket 4. Sternum 11. Horn cones 5. Elbow joint 12. Cervical vertebrae 6. Ulna13. Dorsal vertebrae 7. Humerus

50 Skeleton of a Cow 14. Lumber vertebrae 20. Knee joint 15. Sacrum 21. Tibia 16. Hip Bone 22. Hock joint 17. Caudal vertebrae 23. Ribs 18. Hip Joint 24. Pasterns 19. Femur 25. Coronary

51 Skeleton of a Horse

52 1. Thoracic vertebrae 9. Tibia 2. Lumbar vertebrae10. Fibula 3. Sacrum11. Tarsus 4. Shaft of Ilium12. Metatarsus 5. Coccygeal vertebrae13. Stifle 6. Hip joint14. Pubis 7. Femur15. False ribs 8. Patella16. True ribs

53 Skeleton of a Horse 17. Proximal sesamoid bones25. Elbow joint 18. Ulna26. Sternum 19. Coffin joint27. Humerus 20. Pastern joint28. Shoulder joint 21. Fetlock joint29. Scapula 22. Metacarpus30. Mandible 23. Carpus31. Facial bones 24. Radius32. Cranial bones 33. Cervical vertebrae

54 Skeleton of a Fowl

55 1. Incisive7. Scapula 2. Nasal8. Fused Ribs 3. Occipital9. Ilium 4. Ulula10. Pygostyle 5. Ulna11. Ischium 6. Radius12. Pubis

56 Skeleton of a Fowl 13. Femur19. Coracoid 14. Fibula20. Clavicle 15. Tibia21. Cervical vertebrae 16. Metatarsus22. Mandible 17. Sternum23. Humerus 18. Patella

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60 Horse Skeleton

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62 Chicken Skeleton


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