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The Axial Skeleton  Fun Facts About Bones  Bone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone.  Babies are born with 300 bones, but only have 206.

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Presentation on theme: "The Axial Skeleton  Fun Facts About Bones  Bone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone.  Babies are born with 300 bones, but only have 206."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Axial Skeleton  Fun Facts About Bones  Bone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone.  Babies are born with 300 bones, but only have 206 by adulthood.  Mice and giraffes have the same number of bones in their neck as a human: 7.  The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5 mph.

2 The Axial and Appendicular Skeleton  About 206 bones  Sesamoid bones range from (2-26)  2 major divisions:  Axial  Appendicular

3 The Axial Skeleton  Head, neck, trunk  Skull  Hyoid bone  Vertebral Column  Thoracic Cage (12 pairs of ribs)  Sternum

4 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Axial Skeleton Fig 7-1

5 The Axial Skeleton  Functions of the Axial Skeleton  Supports and protects organs in body cavities  Attaches to muscles of  Head, neck, and trunk  Respiration  Appendicular skeleton

6 The Skull  The skull protects  The brain  Entrances to respiratory system  Entrance to digestive system  The skull contains 22 bones  8 cranial bones:  Form the braincase or cranium  14 facial bones:  Protect and support entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts

7 The Skull  The cranial part of the skull is composed of 8 curved plates of bone that interlock with each other Fig 7-3 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 The Skull Fig 7-3 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 The Skull  14 bones form the face Fig 7-3d © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 The Skull Fig 7-3e © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 The Skull Fig 7-4

12 The Skull Fig 7-4

13 The Skull  Superficial Facial Bones (for muscle attachment)  Maxillae = maxillary bones  Lacrimal  Nasal  Zygomatic  Mandible  Deep Facial Bones  1. Separate the oral and nasal cavities  2. Form the nasal septum  Palatine bones  Inferior nasal conchae  Vomer

14 The Skull  Sinuses  Cavities that decrease the weight of the skull  Lined with mucous membranes  Protect the entrances of the respiratory system  Sutures  The immovable joints of the skull  The four major sutures  Lambdoid suture  Coronal suture  Sagittal suture  Squamous suture

15 The Skull  __________________ Suture  Between occipital & parietal bones  May contain sutural (Wormian) bones  __________________ Suture  Between frontal & parietal bones  The calvaria (skullcap)  Consists of occipital, parietal, and frontal bones  __________________ Suture  Between the parietal bones  From lambdoid suture to coronal suture Fig 7-3

16 The Skull  ___________________ Sutures  Form boundaries between temporal bones and parietal bones Fig 7-3

17 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Cranial Bones  Occipital bone  Parietal bones  Frontal bone  Temporal bones  Sphenoid  Ethmoid

18 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The _________________ Bone  Functions of the occipital bone  Forms the posterior and inferior surfaces of the cranium  Articulations of the occipital bone  Parietal bones  Temporal bones  Sphenoid (underneath)  First cervical vertebra (atlas)  Marks of the occipital bone  External occipital protuberance (bulge)  External occipital crest (prominent ridge): –to attach ligaments

19 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Occipital Bone  Marks of the occipital bone  Occipital ________: articulate with neck  Inferior and superior nuchal lines: attachment site of muscles and ligaments  Foramina of the occipital bone  ____________________: connects cranial and spinal cavities  Jugular foramen: for jugular vein  _________________________: for hypoglossal nerves Fig 7-5

20 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The ___________________ Bones  Functions of the parietal bones  Forms part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium  Articulations of the parietal bones  Other parietal bone  Occipital bone  Temporal bone  Frontal bone  Sphenoid

21 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Parietal Bones  Marks of the parietal bones  Superior and inferior temporal lines: –to attach temporalis muscle  Grooves for cranial blood vessels Fig 7-5

22 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The __________________ bone  Functions of the frontal bone  Forms the anterior cranium and upper eye sockets  Contains frontal sinuses –Cavities lined with mucous membranes that protect the entrances of the respiratory system  Articulations of the frontal Bone  Parietal bone  Maxilla  Metopic suture  Ethmoid  Lacrimal bone  Zygomatic bone  Sphenoid  Nasal bone

23 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Frontal Bone  Marks of the frontal bone  Frontal squama (forehead)  Supra-orbital margin (protects eye)  _________________(for tear ducts)  Frontal sinuses  Foramina of the frontal bone  Supra-orbital foramen: –for blood vessels of eyebrows, eyelids, and frontal sinuses  Supra-orbital notch: –an incomplete supra-orbital foramen Fig 7-6

24 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Temporal Bones  Functions of the temporal bones  Part of lateral walls of cranium and zygomatic arches  Articulate with mandible  Surround and protect inner ear  Attach muscles of jaws and head  Articulations of the temporal bones  Zygomatic bone  Sphenoid  Parietal bone  Occipital bone  Mandible Fig 7-7

25 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  Marks of the Temporal Bones  Squamous part: borders the squamous suture  Mandibular fossa (depression): articulates with the mandible  ___________________ process (projection or bump)  Inferior to the squamous portion  Articulates with temporal process of zygomatic bone  Forms zygomatic arch (cheekbone)  ______________________ (canal): ends at tympanic membrane  Mastoid process  For muscle attachment

26 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The _________________  Functions of the Sphenoid  Part of the floor of the cranium  Unites cranial and facial bones  Strengthens sides of the skull  Contains sphenoidal sinuses  Articulations of the Sphenoid  Ethmoid  Frontal bone  Occipital bone  Parietal bone  Temporal bone  Palatine bones  Zygomatic bones  Maxillae  Vomer

27 The Cranial Bones of the Skull Greater wing forms part of the cranial floor Hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica holds the ____________ Foramens hold blood vessels & nerves of the face and jaws Fig 7-8

28 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The ______________  Functions of the ethmoid  Forms anteromedial floor of the cranium  Roof of the nasal cavity  Part of the nasal septum and medial orbital wall  Contains ethmoidal air cells (network of sinuses) Fig 7-4

29 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  Articulations of the Ethmoid  Frontal bone  Sphenoid  Maxillary bones  Nasal bone  Lacrimal bone  Palatine bone  Inferior nasal conchae  Vomer

30 The Cranial Bones of the Skull  Parts of the Ethmoid  The _______________ plate  Floor of the cranium  Roof of the nasal cavity  Contains crista galli  The 2 lateral masses  Superior and middle nasal conchae  The perpendicular plate  Part of the nasal septum  __________________ foramina  In the cribriform plate  For olfactory nerves Fig 7-9

31 The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Facial Bones  Maxillae (2 maxillary bones - upper jaw)  Palatine bones (2, posterior portion of hard palate)  Nasal bones (2, support bridge of nose & connect to cartilage)  Vomer (1, forms inferior portion of the bony nasal septum)  Inferior nasal conchae (2)  1. Creates air turbulance in nasal cavity to warm and humidify inhaled air  2. increases epithelial surface area  Zygomatic bones (2, lateral wall of the orbit and cheeks)  Lacrimal bones (2, medial wall of the orbit)  Mandible (1, lower jaw)

32 The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Hyoid Bone  Functions of the hyoid bone  Supports the ______  Attaches muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and tongue Fig 7-12

33 The Orbital Complex Fig 7-13

34 The Vertebral Column  The spine or vertebral column  Protects the spinal cord  Supports the head and body  26 bones  24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx Fig 7-16

35 The Vertebral Column  Vertebrae  The neck  7 ___________________ vertebrae  C1 (superior) to C7 (inferior)  C1 articulates with the skull  The upper back (T1-T12)  12 __________________ vertebrae  Each articulates with one or more pair of ribs  The lower back (L1-L5)  5 ___________________ vertebrae  L5 articulates with the sacrum

36 The Vertebral Column  The Sacrum (S) and Coccyx (Co)  The fifth lumbar vertebra articulates with the ____________________  The sacrum articulates with the ____________________

37 The Vertebral Column  Structure of a Vertebra  The vertebral body (________)  Transfers weight along the spine  Intravertebral discs provide flexibility and protection  The vertebral arch  Vertebral foramen encloses the _______________________  The articular processes  Lateral projections between laminae and pedicles Fig 7-18

38 The Vertebral Column Fig 7-18 Intervertebral discs are pads of cartilage that (1) separate the ________________________ (2) absorb shock (3) provide flexibility

39 Vertebral Regions Distinctive features: 1._____________________ for passage of vertebral arteries to brain. 2.Prominent dorsal spinous processes 3.___________ vertebral body (only have to support the head) 4.Large vertebral ________ (passage of largest part of spinal cord) Fig 7-19

40 Vertebral Regions  The Cervical Vertebrae  Atlas (_________)  Articulates with occipital condyles of skull  Has no body or spinous process (the others do)  Has a large, round foramen within anterior and posterior arches Fig 7-19

41 Vertebral Regions  Thoracic vertebrae (T 1 –T 12 )  Have heart-shaped bodies  ________bodies than in C 1 –C 7  Smaller vertebral _________ than in C 1 –C 7  Long, slender spinous processes  Dorsolateral surfaces of body have costal facets:  Which articulate with heads of ribs Fig 7-20

42 Vertebral Regions  Thoracic vertebrae (T 1 –T 12 )  Ribs at T 1 –T 10  Contact costal and transverse costal facets  T 1 –T 8 articulate with two pairs of ribs  At superior and inferior costal facets  T 9 –T 11 articulate with one pair of ribs  T 10 –T 12 transition to lumbar vertebrae Fig 7-20

43 Vertebral Regions  Lumbar vertebrae (L 1 –L 5 )  ___________ vertebrae  Thicker bodies than T 1 – T 12  Transverse processes  Slender  Project dorsolaterally  Spinous process:  Short, heavy  For attachment of lower back muscles Fig 7-21

44 Vertebral Regions  Lumbar vertebrae (L 1 –L 5 )  Oval-shaped bodies  No costal or transverse costal facets (Why?)  Triangular vertebral foramen  Superior articular processes  Face up and in  Inferior articular processes  Face down and out  Larger _______ (supporting weight of upper skeleton) Fig 7-21

45 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Vertebral Regions

46 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Vertebral Regions © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 The Vertebral Column Figure 7–17 Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine.

49 Vertebral Regions  The __________________  Is curved, more in males than in females  Protects reproductive, urinary, and digestive organs  Attaches  The axial skeleton to pelvic girdle of appendicular skeleton  Broad muscles that move the thigh  The adult sacrum  Consists of five fused sacral vertebrae  Fuses between puberty and ages 25–30  Leaving transverse lines

50 Vertebral Regions  The __________________  Attaches ligaments and a constricting muscle of the anus  Mature coccyx  Consists of three to five fused coccygeal vertebrae Fig 7-21

51 Vertebral Regions Ilium Ischial bone Ishial tuberosity Pubis Acetabulum

52 The Thoracic Cage Fig 7-23a  The skeleton of the chest  Supports the thoracic cavity  Consists of: –thoracic vertebrae –ribs –sternum (breastbone)  The Rib Cage  Formed of ribs and sternum

53 The Thoracic Cage  Functions of the Thoracic Cage  Protects organs of the thoracic cavity  Heart, lungs, and thymus  Attaches muscles  For respiration  Of the vertebral column  Of the pectoral girdle  Of the upper limbs Fig 7-23b

54 The Thoracic Cage  Ribs  Are mobile  Can absorb shock  Functions of ribs  Rib movements (breathing): –affect width and depth of thoracic cage –changing its volume Fig 7-24c

55 The Thoracic Cage  Ribs 1–7 (true ribs)  Vertebrosternal ribs  Connected to the sternum by __________ cartilages  Ribs 8–12 (false ribs)  Do not attach directly to the sternum  _________________________ribs (ribs 8–10)  Fuse together  Merge with cartilage before reaching the sternum  ___________________ or vertebral ribs (ribs 11–12)  Connect only to the vertebrae and back muscles  Have no connection with the sternum

56 The Thoracic Cage  Structures of the Ribs  The head (capitulum)  At the vertebral end of the rib  Has superior and inferior articular facets  The neck  The short area between the head and the tubercle

57 The Thoracic Cage  Structures of the Ribs  The tubercle (tuberculum)  A small dorsal elevation  Has an auricular facet that contacts the facet of its thoracic vertebra (at T 1 –T 10 only)  The tubercular body (shaft)  Attaches muscles of the pectoral girdle and trunk  Attaches to the intercostal muscles that move the ribs

58 The Thoracic Cage Fig 7-24

59 The Thoracic Cage  The sternum  A flat bone  In the midline of the thoracic wall  Three parts of the sternum  The __________  The sternal body  The xiphoid process - articulates with the clavicles & 1 st ribs - attaches to costal cartilages of ribs attaches to diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles


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